Evaluation of Cretaceous-Tertiary Limestone for Building and Dimension Stones in Erbil, Kurdistan Region of Iraq


  • Aveen A. Surdashy Department of Geology, College of Science, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • Ahmed M. Aqrawi Department of Geology, College of Science, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq




Building stone; Dimension stone; Compressive strength; Thermal conductivity; Durability


In Kurdistan NE of Iraq extensive beddings of well bedded carbonate rocks deposited within Tertiary- Cretaceous age. For this purpose various studies of petrographic, physical, mechanical, and chemical properties for building construction were carried out. Appearance of rocks was measured in the field by thickness of the beddings, joints, fractures, and brightness. The petrographic study achived under transmitted light microscope for diagenesis, weathering, allochems, and matrix. Measuring specific gravity, density, water absorption, moisture content, porosity, and saturation coefficient to qualify the rock according to its physical properties, whereas measuring compressive strength of the rocks were determined for qualifying the mechanical properties, the XRF test for determining the oxides and durability tests for qualifying their chemical properties. Eleven samples selected from Qamchuqa Formation in Binabawi anticline, Aqra-Bekhme Formation in Shakrok anticline, Shiranish Formation in Pirat anticline, Shiranish Formation in Harir anticline, Shiranish Formation in Safin anticline, Shiranish Formation in Shakrok anticline, Pila Spi Formation in Pirmam anticline, Khurmala Formation in Bina Bawi anticline, Fatha Formation in Kori syncline, Anah Formation in South Qara Chugh anticline, and Euphrates Formation in North Qara Chugh anticline. The results in terms of economic demand for building and dimension stones showed that samples of Shiranish Formation from Pirat, Safin, Harir, and Shakrok anticline are highly recommended as dimension stone and building stone, while samples of Qamchuqa, Aqra-Bekhme, Pilaspi, Khurmala, and Euphrates Formations are accepted but not recommended as dimension stone and dimension stone, samples of Fatha and Anah Formations are not accepted as dimension stone, but accepted as building stones as an insulator.