The Assessment of Clay Briquettes from East of Erbil City Northern Iraq for Utilization in Various Building Applications

  • Avin A. Mahmood Department of Geology, College of Science, Salahaddin University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • Ahmed M. Aqrawi Department of Geology, College of Science, Salahaddin University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
Keywords: Quaternary, Bestana village, Linear shrinkage, Bulk density, Efflorescence, Modulus of rupture, ; Briquettes


Assessment of clay briquettes for various building applications take into consideration, for this purpose seven clay samples by channel method collected from Injana, Mukdadiya and Bai Hassan Formations with Quaternary deposits in Bestana village, for the evaluation test purpose, 84 rectangular briquettes (1x4x8 cm) were prepared by semi-dry (8%water) pressing method (250Kg/cm²), fired at 800, 900, 1000, 1080ºC, for the evaluation tests of color, linear shrinkage, apparent porosity, water absorption, bulk density, efflorescence and modulus of rupture, and 28 cylindrical briquettes (4 cm height and diameter) were prepared for the evaluation test of compressive strength. The results showed that the color of the briquettes varied with different firing temperatures as a function of various mineralogical compositions. The dry sensitivity index measured for the studied ceramic briquettes, showed a high dry sensitivity index, drying shrinkage and water content % values, due to this result they require low temperature drying for long periods by adding 7.96 to 13.54% water during briquette paste preparation. Comparing these evaluation test results with the International standard specifications for the ceramic industry No.25 (1988), 17 (1998), and C1167 (2003). This study showed the availability of using all of the studied samples in the brick industry, floor and wall tile industry, with Injana, Bai Hassan, and Quaternary deposits of Bestana village can be used in the roofing tile industry. Samples from Mukdadiyah and Bai Hassan Formations can be used as chemical resistant tiles when fired at 1080oC.