The Iraqi Geological Journal <p>The <strong><em>Iraqi Geological Journal (IGJ)</em></strong> is a peer-reviewed and indexed journal, issued twice a year in English by the Union of Iraqi Geologists (UIG).&nbsp;</p> en-US (Sameer R. Ahmed) (Sameer R. Ahmed) Sat, 30 Apr 2022 08:58:45 +0000 OJS 60 Mapping of Genetic Sequences of the Cambrian Series in the Jbel Saghro Massif, Eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco: Implications for Eustatic and Tectonic Controls <p>In this paper, a sedimentological and sequence stratigraphy analysis was performed on Lower and Middle Cambrian deposits of Jbel Saghro, Eastern Anti-Atlas. The field data analysis and the application of sequence stratigraphy concepts were used to classify sedimentary processes and depositional environment, and to define the Lower to Middle Cambrian basin’s detailed geometry. The Cambrian sedimentation of northeastern Saghro indicates a deltaic environment, which is composed of two depositional sequences. These sequences are made of a transgressive system tract with retrograding sediments, and a highstand system tract with prograding sediments. In response to sea-level change, these system tracts were formed by several genetic units and limited by various stratigraphic surfaces. The genetic unit stacking patterns combined with the study of synsedimentary tectonics enabled to follow the sedimentary record’s Spatio-temporal evolution and its three-dimensional geometry. The study area deposits display significant dissimilarities in thickness. The western part shows a Lower Cambrian hiatus and an important reduction of the thickness in the Middle Cambrian deposits. However, the marine trend (progradation/retrogradation) remains similar in the study area. This suggests the same eustatic origin of all genetic sequences and variations in their preservation rate. This configuration is the result of differential subsidence that affected the Anti-Atlas during&nbsp;the Cambrian.</p> Assia Idrissi, Mohamed Saadi, Yasser Astati, Ali Bouayachi, kawtar Benyas ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 23 Apr 2022 19:55:02 +0000 Topographic Survey with Disto x and 3D Representation of the Caves by Laser Grammetry, Case of the AZIZA Cave, Errachidia, Morocco <p>From the middle of the 19th century, speleological topography became a discipline, if not an art, which supported the work of both explorers and scientists. Underground explorations in Morocco remain an area to be discovered and to be developed, the limestone surface of Morocco which is 99,890 km², represents 14% of the total surface which potentially contains a large number of caves, only 3 developed caves.</p> <p>This under-exploitation is explained by the lack of evaluation of the richness of the karst and cave heritage of Morocco, the topographic maps of Moroccan caves are poorly carried out or absent, the last inventory of Moroccan caves dates from 1981.</p> <p>The objective of this study is to represent the AZIZA cave virtually, to appreciate its volume, and to optimize the topography of the latter based on 3D technologies.</p> <p>Two methods were used, the Topography of the cave by a DISTO-X, the results of the 3D projection of the cave were carried out on the software VISUAL TOPO.</p> <p>Secondly, we carried out 3D modeling by lasergrammetry using a TLS FARO FOCUS 70, to scan the main entrance, the main axes, and the large rooms of the AZIZA cave, the final rendering was provided by the scene software.</p> <p>Lasergrammetry allowed us to have the possibilities of a virtual representation of the cave and also important details that conventional methods cannot give.</p> <p>Because of this heritage dimension, conservation conditions are essential, also given the potential to be appreciated that the cave and its environment offer, which can constitute a typical example of the exploitation of karst heritage and its environment</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hicham Benani, Lalla Mina Ouzzaouit, Larbi Boudad, Hassan Rhinane, Ayoub Nehili, Yahya El Khalki, Nadia Slimani ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 23 Apr 2022 19:59:56 +0000 Subsurface Investigation of Voids using Ground Penetration Radar in Bismayah Site, Southern Baghdad, Central Iraq <p>Ground Penetration Radar investigation was used to survey the Bismayah pumping station site in Baghdad. The survey includes fifteen Ground Penetration Radar survey lines inside and outside the site, an antenna of 250 MHz was used. The total length of survey lines was about 706 m. The results of Ground Penetration Radar lines in outside station's radargrams exhibit reverberation events in the Ground Penetration Radar signal, it might be interpreted as the inverse of existing voids or noise near the surface. Grouted materials could be understood as the refractor. The results of the radargrams along the paths inside the pumping station revealed that the station collapsed in the north because the reflector of soil creep was visible in the north line path direction. After 4 m from the ground surface and right beneath the foundation base, there was a layer of loose dense river sand filled with water. It is expected that the process of soil creep caused the rush and drift of the pumping station structure towards the withdrawal of water from the well. The results show the efficiency of the Ground Penetration Radar technique in the near-surface investigation of the current study, due to the easy and time saving survey with reasonable results.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Hussein Abdulrahim Al-Saady, Hussein H. Karim, Firas H. Al-Menshed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 23 Apr 2022 20:03:02 +0000 Application of Multi-Channel Analysis Surface Waves and Electrical Resistivity Tomography Methods to Identify Weak Zones at University of Mosul, Northern Iraq <p>Cracks have been developed in a large lecture hall on the University of Mosul Campus. These cracks exist along two sides of the building. Multi Analysis Surface Waves and Electrical Resistivity Tomography surveys were conducted at the surrounding building to investigate the nature and distribution of shallow subsurface soil/rock. The MASW’s data show three layers: the first layer is characterized by low shear wave velocity ranges between 210 and 420 m/s which is attributed to infill materials, the next layer is attributed to a river terrace (fairly competent rock) which has Vs ranging from 430m/s to 840 m/s It is recognized by a gradual increase in mechanical characteristics as depth increases. In-depth between about 2.5m and 6.0 m the shear wave velocity drops in the top contact of this layer. The causes of low velocity may be due to weathering of the medium because of a sinkhole. The Electrical Resistivity Tomography profile shows four electrical zones, The first zone has 50-70 Ω.m with a variable thickness from 0.5-1.5 m which indicates infill materials. The second zone has a very low resistivity value, and a depth ranges 0.5–3.5 m, which might be interpreted to be increased clay, silt and water content (high water-saturated zone). The third zone is characterized by a high-resistivity value (&gt;100 Ω.m) that could be related to a dry conglomerate rock and gravels belong to river terraces. The fourth zone has a low-resistivity value (&lt;20 Ω.m) associated with a water-saturated marl bed. We could be definitively correlated the resistivity and velocity anomalies to sinkhole activity in were identified and characterized using combined geophysical methods. The Multi Analysis Surface Waves and Electrical Resistivity Tomography were shown to complete each other in the evaluation. The variations in Vs (low velocity) and resistivity (conductive zone) within the river terrace were detected and proposed to be indicative of dissolution and the subsidence responsible for structural damage implied by the change in the velocity and resistivity. The roughness of the top terrace surface strongly influences the nature of the velocity and resistivity values.&nbsp;This roughness is suggestive of dissolution or erosion.</p> Ahmed J.R. Al-Heety, Zainab M. Shanshal, Auday Y. Al-Mashhadany ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 23 Apr 2022 20:08:36 +0000 Determination of Petrophysical Parameters Using Well Logs for Mishrif Formation in F Oil Field Southern Iraq <p>The main objective of this research is to identify and analyze the Mishrif Formation's reservoir units and subunits in the F oilfield, which is located north of the Nasiriya, using mostly well-logging data and other accessible geological data. The Petrophysical and lithological parameters of each unit of the Mishrif Formation are determined using data from the F-X1, F-X2, and F-X3 wells to evaluate porosity and water saturation for each unit. GEOLOG8 software was used to interpret output data. High reservoir potential is found in units M1.2, L1.1, L1.2 and L2 due to high effective porosity and low water saturation. The&nbsp;reservoir units are separated by cap units including marl key beds and units M1.1, M2.</p> Madyan H. Ali, Rafid N. Rajab, Mahmood J. Al-Khafaji ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 23 Apr 2022 20:12:41 +0000 Microfacies Analysis and Diagenetic Assessment of the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene Succession in Khabaz Oilfield, Northern Iraq <p>The Jeribe and Azkand formations, which were deposited during Late Oligocene-Early Miocene are a major reservoir interval in the Khabaz oilfield where it is, for the most part, a carbonate reservoir. The study area is located in the north of Iraq within the Foothill Zone. Through the thin-section examination for Azkand/Anah carbonates in the Khabaz oil field (Kz-3, Kz-4, Kz-10, and Kz-43), the petrographic and microfacies have been studied, which show six major carbonate microfacies, each of them is representing a distinctive deposition environment, and these are: restricted and semi-restricted for the Jeribe Formation, and semi-restricted, back reef, reef, fore reef, shallow open marine and slope for Azkand and Anah formations. There are several types of diagenetic processes; some of these processes enhance the porosity and the other reduces it. Porosity reduction by: Cementation (Isopachous, meniscus, syntaxial calcite, Drusy calcite, botryoidal, blocky calcite), Recrystallization; Compaction, and late stage of dolomitization. This appeared near the upper and lower contact of the Jeribe Formation and in the lower part of the Azkand Formation. While the porosity enhancement which represented by the depositional process (primary porosity) and dissolution (secondary porosity), in addition to the early and middle stage of dolomitization. This appeared&nbsp;in the middle part of the Jeribe Formation and the upper part of Azkand.</p> Hayder Abd Al Rasul Mahdi, Manal Shakir Al-Kubaisi, Samir Nouri Al-Jawad ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 23 Apr 2022 20:15:10 +0000 Microfacies Analysis and Depositional Environment of Khurmala Formation (Paleocene-Early Eocene) in Kalati Section, Akre Area, Kurdistan Region, Iraq <p>The depositional environment of the Khurmala Formation (Paleocene-Early Eocene) in the Kalati village, Akre area, northern Kurdistan region of Iraq was carried out from its microfacies analysis. The total thickness of the formation in the studied section is about 220 m and it is divided into three lithostratigraphic units: Brecciated dolomitic limestone unit, Medium to thick-bedded dolomitic limestone unit, and Thin to medium bedded limestone unit. Based on the detailed microfacies studies of 33 thin sections, three microfacies and ten sub microfacies were distinguished in the carbonate rocks of Khurmala Formation and they are subdivided depending on their environmental interpretation, into two facies association: back reef /lagoon and intertidal. Field observation and microfacies studies suggest that the Khurmala Formation in Kalati outcrop was deposited in the back reef lagoonal environment in the lower part and intervals of the middle part and changed to an intertidal environment toward the upper part.</p> Aland M. Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 23 Apr 2022 20:16:51 +0000 Rock Type and Pore Throat Radius of Zubair Formation in the W Oil Field: Analysis Utilizing Core and Log Data <p>The Zubair Formation is a prolific oil reservoir in several southeastern Iraq oil fields. The formation comprises thick sandstones with interbedded shales and siltstones of Lower Cretaceous age (Hauterivian to lower Aptian). The environment of the Zubair Formation consists of fluviodeltaic, deltaic, and marine sandstones. In southern Iraq, the area is subdivided into informal members. (oldest to youngest). The Lower Shale, lower sand, middle shale, main pay upper sand, and the upper shale. At the W oilfield, the main pay member is an oil producer. The thickness is of the main reservoir about 100 meters thick. A recent study focused on the Main Pay upper sand, which is divided into three informal units. The upper unit H and lower unit L reservoir units are connected by shale intervals (K unit) that extend throughout the field area laterally. There exist four depositional lithofacies of Zubair Formation fluvial, channel, mouth bar, and prodelta depositional lithofacies. Four Facies were defined according to gamma-ray sandstone, shaly sand, sandy shale, and shale Facies. The Zubair formation has four types of rocks (RRT1, RRT2, RRT3, and RRT4) due to heterogeneity. The RRT1 is characterized by 10%-25% porosities and 10-1000 mD permeability. The RRT2 has a similar porosity range to RRT1, 15%–25%, but an order ofmagnitude lower permeability range from 10-100 mD. RRT3 is considered to have high porosity and low permeability is thought to have great storage but poor flow potential. RRT 3 is characterized by 6%-15% porosities and &lt;10 mD permeability. Meanwhile, RRT4 is considered to have low porosity and low permeability. Various rock types showed in the H unit due to heterogeneity, which composed this unit. The K unit unveiled RRT4 due to shale Facies. The rocks types common of unit L are RRT1 and RRT2 whereas the L unit mostly</p> Zahraa A. Muzaal, Fahad M. Al-Najm, Wasan S. Al-Qurnawi, Maher J. Ismail ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 23 Apr 2022 20:42:35 +0000 Geotechnical Assessment of the Erbil-Hareer Highway in North Iraq, Kurdistan Region, Using a Field Method <p>A new highway is under construction since few years to join the capital; Erbil city with many main towns connecting; in the plan to the northern boarders of the Iraqi Kurdistan Region. It is a double lane road constructed according to modern standards. It crosses many mountains, and two tunnels are already completed, one is almost completed and another one is abandoned: hitherto. The completed part of the highway reaches the Hareer town with some parts being under construction before and after the Shaqlawa town. Because parts of the Highway are not completed yet; therefore, those parts suffer from slope stability problems; mainly due to the drainage problems. Other completed parts; however, suffer also from slope stability problems; mainly due to steep slope road cuts and/ or irrelevant treatments for the road cuts. Among those unstable slopes, we have chosen six stations, which experienced the most severe failures. At those six stations, we have applied the field method to estimate the possibility of failure following Bejerman’s method. We have found that the failure possibility is high in the station Nos. 1- 4, and is Low in the station Nos. 5 and 6.</p> Varoujan K. Sissakian, Mohammed J. Hamawandy, Rahel Kh. Ibrahim ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 23 Apr 2022 20:44:28 +0000 Tectonic Indications for Thickness Change of Geological Formations in South Eastern Part Area of Safen Anticline, North Eastern Iraq <p>The study area is located in the southeastern part of Safen Anticline, northeastern Iraq. The aim of the study is to discuss the listric fault role in the change of the deposition basin topography of Bekhme and Shiranish formations and finally change their thicknesses. The field data picked up in September of 2020 included bed attitudes and formation boundaries, with their positions. After the drawing of three cross-sections and calculating the thickness of the Bekhme and Shiranish formations in the studied area, the results showed that the thickness of the Bekhme Formation which represents the reef environment, increases in thickness within the northeastern limb of the fold, While the thickness of the Shiranish Formation which represents the deep environment, increases within the southwestern limb of fold. These changes were concluded as result occurred due to the reverse movement of the Listeric fault responsible for the growth of the fold synchronously with Bekhme and Shiranish formation deposition. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Ali Hussain Ali, Ayyed Hussein Ward, Amera Ismael Hussain ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 23 Apr 2022 20:49:28 +0000 Mapping Groundwater Risk Using Geographic Information Systems and QGIS Techniques of the Upper Al-Sanaf Marsh Sub Basin in Maysan, Southern Iraq <p>&nbsp;It is possible to determine the risks through the existence of contaminated groundwater in some drinking wells. Most of the recent applied studies of groundwater scientists are the exposure of groundwater or aquifers to pollution, especially in areas that contain polluted groundwater due to human use of land. This work intends to produce a map to identify the areas of groundwater at risk. The groundwater risk map is dependent on applying the equation that exemplifies the combination of the map of vulnerability with the map of land uses and land covers using Geographical Information Systems (Version 10.4) and QGIS (Version 3.12) software. In addition, validation work for groundwater risk map with nitrate concentrations have be carried out. The results showed that the area risk map ranges from 117 to 218 (low, medium, high, and very high). The majority of up Al-Sanaf Marsh sub-basin are of low and medium risk, except for some southern, southeastern, northern, and eastern parts the groundwater is high and very high risk.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Madyan Raad Gazal Al-Gburi, Mohamed Shit M. Ramzi, Lina Hussein Mohammed Shaikhan, Rafat Basher Sheet Habala ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 23 Apr 2022 20:53:15 +0000 Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Rutba Area, Al-Anbar, Western Iraq <p>The groundwater samples are considered to be fresh to slightly water based on the TDS value. Groundwater within the study region is dominated by calcium ions and sulphate ion refers to carbonate rock from the Mulussa Formation. The type of water sample in the study area is classified in class e and class c according to the Piper diagram, the types of groundwater samples of the study area are earth alkaline water with dominant sulphate and chlorine and normal earth alkaline water with dominant sulphate or chlorine except well no 3 which has been classified as Alkaline water with dominant sulphate and chlorine. Correlation coefficient analyses of the groundwater samples show strong correlations with Ca- Cl and Mg-Cl. TDS shows strong positive correlation relation with Na, Ca, Cl, and SO<sub>4</sub>. CA was used to organize the fifteen sampling locations into four clusters with similar water quality parameters. CA is divided into four clusters of similar characteristics related to water quality. PCA shows a high positive correlation between groundwater parameters and factor 1. Factor 1 reflects the role of the geogenic&nbsp;process like the dissolution of carbonate and dolomitic rocks prevalent in the study area.</p> Tariq Abed Hussain, Qusai Y. Al-Kubaisi, sufian K. Al-Sumaidai ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 23 Apr 2022 20:55:13 +0000 Utilizing Biogas to Produce Clean Energy from Landfills in Al-Karkh, Baghdad, Iraq <p>The gaseous emissions that are emitted from solid waste without treatment or investment are one of the problems that Baghdad suffers from, because of its environmental and health effects, both on the man, animals, and land. The research aims to study the geographical distribution and quality of waste dumps in the Al-Karkh in Baghdad, and measure the concentrations of methane gas (CH₄) emitted from the waste balers and landfills in the study area, which is the basis for biogas production to determine the possibility of investing it in energy production and other purposes, and finding appropriate solutions to dispose of waste by appropriate scientific methods. The results showed that most of the waste in the study area consists of organic matter by 42%, and the concentrations of CH<sub>4</sub> measured in the study sites during the summer and winter periods, although they did not exceed the global limits, but it can be invested in biogas production which used to produce electrical energy, due to its emission as a result of organic waste decomposition by heat, and benefiting from the hot climate of Baghdad for long periods of time during the year, as well as using the remaining materials from the decomposition process as organic fertilizer for the soil. The study also indicated the best methods that can be disposed of waste are to convert them into clean and environmentally friendly energy by incineration (Energy Recovery) or Energy production from biogas, as well as reduce the amount of generated waste by using recycling, reuse and&nbsp;recovery techniques.</p> Russell Tariq Jawhar, Esraa Adel Rasoul, Maitham Abdullah Sultan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 23 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Lineaments Tracing of Magnetic Sources Depending on the Aeromagnetic Data: Case Study in Salman Basin and Surrounding Areas, Southern Desert of Iraq <p>This study deals with the processing and analysis of aeromagnetic data for an area covering the region of Salman Basin within Al- Muthanna, Iraq. The objective of this study is to use the available satellite images and aeromagnetic data to investigate the boundaries of geological structures. For further understanding of the tectonic of the study area, the Centre for Exploration Targeting Grid Analysis extension which is available in Oasis montaj software was applied to the data. It is proposed that it provides unbiased results, but to check the results Tilt Derivative or local phase derivative is used where the zero-contour line of the tilt derivative strongly delineates the edges of structures. Also, the drainage pattern for the basin is done using Geographic Information System and Digital Elevation Model raster to see if the drainage is affected by the subsurface lineaments that are determined using the Centre for Exploration Targeting technique. As a result, the deep main linear features follow the general trend of the main faults that formed the Salman Basin. The new lineaments were discovered using the Exploration Targeting grid analysis, zero contours of. There are two systems of lineaments in the present study area. The first set is taken the NW-NE direction perpendicular to the extensional structures, while the second set has the NS-EW direction.</p> Aqeel Rahman Hasan, Inass A. Almallah, Ahmed S. Mousa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 23 Apr 2022 20:59:12 +0000