The Iraqi Geological Journal https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj <p>The <strong><em>Iraqi Geological Journal (IGJ)</em></strong> is a peer-reviewed and indexed journal, issued twice a year in English by the Union of Iraqi Geologists (UIG).&nbsp;</p> The Union of Iraqi Geologists en-US The Iraqi Geological Journal 2414-6064 The Quartz Veins, Hydrothermal Alteration and Ore Mineralization of Orogenic Gold Deposit at Mendoke Mountains, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/983 <p>The research at Mendoke Mountains, Southeast Sulawesi Province, particularly for the study of gold deposits, becomes a new challenge because there is no previous detailed study. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of orogenic gold deposits, which include the type and texture of quartz veins, alteration and hydrothermal mineralization with hosted metamorphic rocks. The research methods used include fieldwork and laboratory analysis. The type and texture of quartz veins were identified based on the field observations. The hydrothermal alteration was analyzed using X-ray diffraction analysis, and hydrothermal mineralization which analyzed by ore microscopy. The results showed that there are three types of quartz veins parallel and crosscut to the direction of foliation, and laminated quartz veins. The quartz veins’ texture is deformed, segmented, brittle, sheared, laminated, sheeted, irregular veins, brecciated, massive, and sigmoidal. The hydrothermal alteration consists of sericitization, argillic, propylitic and carbonization alterations. The hydrothermal mineralization consists of native gold, chalcopyrite, pyrite, stibnite, covellite, cinnabar, galena, arsenopyrite, chrysocolla, magnetite, hematite, and goethite. The host rock of gold mineralization in the study area is classified into the greenschist facies. Based on these characteristics, it shows that gold deposits in the Mendoke Mountains are orogenic gold deposits.</p> Hasria Hasria Hasria Arifudin Idrus Wayan Warmada ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-24 2022-09-24 1 13 10.46717/igj.55.2C.1ms-2022-08-14 Lithostructural Mapping Using Landsat OLI images and Field Investigations in the Oumjrane–Boukerzia Mining District, Eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/1055 <p>The application of remote sensing is considered to be highly efficient in the field of geology, particularly for mapping and discrimination between lithological units, as well as the identification of different surface minerals which enable the acquisition of all the optical and radar data needed to obtain more reliable and particular information, especially in inaccessible areas. Landsat 8 (Operational Land Imager) image bands, which include color compositions 7, 4, and 1, band ratios 7/5, 4/2, 3/1, and 6/3, 6/1, 5/2, Principal Component Analyses PC1, PC4, and PC3, and directional filtering at 0° (NS), 45° (NE–SW), and 90° (EW), were used to analyze the spectral characteristics of the lithological units of the study area and delineate the alteration zones which may contain significant concentrations of base metals. Combined with geological field observations, these data were integrated and analyzed in a geographic information system to establish a multi-criteria characterization of mineralized zones. Hence, the use of remote sensing contributed to the improvement and updating of available geological maps of the Oumjrane–Boukerzia area. Lineament extraction allowed for performed analyses of the structural elements that play a crucial role in the mineral distribution in the study area. Several of the targeted areas were examined in the field by selective sampling. Consequently, the results helped identify new mineralized zones with important mining potential which could be evaluated in the future through&nbsp;detailed geophysical and geochemical work.</p> Ouhoussa LHOUSSAYN Ghafiri Abdessamad Lakhlifa Benaissi Brahim Es-sabbar Si Mhamdi Hicham ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-24 2022-09-24 14 33 10.46717/igj.55.2C.2ms-2022-08-15 Origin and Impact of Trace Elements on Brines of Chotts and Sebkhas (Saline Lakes) in Algerian Low Sahara https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/927 <p>The brines in the chotts and sebkhas of the Algerian Low Sahara are solutions characterized by a salinity that far exceeds that of the waters of the sea (120 to 440 g/l). Over the past three decades, these lacustrine systems (chotts and sebkhas) have become an estuary for all types of urban discharge; this situation highlights the environmental impact of these discharges on these lacustrine systems. The chemical analysis of the brines showed that the average concentration of certain trace elements is very high. It is of the order of 2.2 mg/l for Zn, 1.6 mg/l for Cu and 0.03 mg/l for Pb and Ni. These trace elements are trapped in evaporites and clays and are&nbsp;micropollutants that cause nuisance even when they are released in very small quantities.</p> Bellaoueur Abdelaziz Hacini Messaoud Haddane Abdennour ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-24 2022-09-24 34 40 10.46717/igj.55.2C.3ms-2022-08-16 Quantification of Soil Sensitivity to Water Erosion by the RUSLE Model in the Oued Amter Watershed , NorthWestern Morocco https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/1106 <p>The present study aims to estimate the soil losses in the watershed of Oued Amter extends the length of the internal Rifain domain, located in the region of Tangier-Tetouan-Al Houceima, Chefchaouen province in north-western Morocco. The spatialization of the empirical model was based on the integration of five factors in the Geographic Information System, namely, rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, vegetation cover, topography and anti-erosion practices, and whose superposition allowed the elaboration of the quantitative map of soil losses at the watershed scale. The Oued Amter watershed covers an area of 300 km<sup>2</sup> ; it is elongated with an altitude ranging from 0 m to 2100 m from north to south and a slope that varies from 0 to 58.58%. The rainfall study of the climatic stations located near the watershed has shown the irregularity of rainfall in time and space. The erosivity factor R presented values ranging from 1637.09 to 1937.61, with an average of 1787.35 Mj.mm/ha. h. an (Millijoule. Millimeters/hectare. Hour. Year). The erodibility factor K presents values from 0.139 to 0.140 and it showed that the soils little evolved and the Vertisols are the most&nbsp;vulnerable to erosion.</p> El Brahimi Mohammed El Fellah Bouchta Mastere Mohamed Benzougagh Brahim El Basri Mohamed Fartas Najia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-24 2022-09-24 41 56 10.46717/igj.55.2C.4ms-2022-08-17 Evaluation of Lesser Zab River Course Change between Dokan and Dibbs Dams (N-Iraq), Using GIS Techniques https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/1083 <p>The morphology of the lesser Zab River is influenced, by the presence of two dams (Dokan dam and Dibbs dam) that regulates the natural seasonal flows, this will affect the study area infrastructure and it has varied impacts upon water management strategies. Therefore, this study aims to quantify the morphological changes of the river course in the downstream reaches of the Dokan dam using Remote Sensing and GIS techniques using the Digital Elevation Model (DEM 30x30m) for the period from 1980 to 2020. This study shows that the differences in discharge for a long time will affect the distribution of erosion and deposition along the downstream river channel. The river course has been changed slightly at the upper reach of the study area, and the overall change is towards the middle and the lower reaches of the river, showing a gradual increase in the channel length, increasing meandering index, and the formation of alluvium islands at the river meander. Implications of this study could help identify river changes and their influence on the design and planning of water management projects and infrastructure in the area beside the other risks that might arise in terms of hazards&nbsp;such as floods.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Soran N. Sadeq Adel O. Abdullah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-24 2022-09-24 57 67 10.46717/igj.55.2C.5ms-2022-08-18 Spatiotemporal Analysis of Land Surface Temperature and Vegetation Changes in Duhok District, Kurdistan Region, Iraq https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/1063 <p>The temperature rise has become a serious environmental concern affected by both human and natural factors. Worldwide, rising land surface temperatures have emerged as the most pressing issue facing the twenty-first century. In the last two decades, a curious change was realized in temperature in the Duhok district of Iraq. Hence, this study examined the spatiotemporal land surface temperature (LST) distribution and Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI2) and the correlation between them in the Duhok district in three different years 2001, 2011, and 2021 using Landsat satellite images. Air temperature data from seven weather stations were used to validate the LST results. The study's findings revealed that the Duhok district’s LST has risen during the study period. In general, the average LST has been increasing at a rate of 0.15 °C per year. Other findings showed that the vegetation cover of the Duhok district has changed dynamically. In all three years of study, the regression analysis results indicated that there was a negative correlation between LST and MSAVI2. This method of evaluation will be useful in guiding future urban management work and local&nbsp;government strategies.&nbsp;</p> Rebar T. Mzuri Abdulla A. Omar Yaseen T. Mustafa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-24 2022-09-24 68 81 10.46717/igj.55.2C.6ms-2022-08-19 Determination of Bearing Capacity of the Soil Using Cross-Hole Seismic Survey for a Water Treatment Plant at Thi Qar Governorate, Southern Iraq https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/731 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The geophysical method (Cross-Hole Survey) was used to assess the bearing capacity of the soil in the study area to build a water treatment plant. It was noted, that the velocities of the primary and secondary waves decrease at the depths of 4 and 5 meters compared to the depths above and down. This suggests that the lithology or physical properties of this specific soil have changed. It was also observed that seismic wave velocities are low in general due to the medium density and hardness of the soils in the study area. Furthermore, the elasticity modulus values were shown to decrease at depths of 4 and 5 meters. It is further evidence of the soil's weakness at these depths. When the type of layer changed, the elastic modulus changed as well. The geotechnical properties between the wells were evaluated based on the velocities of seismic waves (S-waves and P-waves) for classifying the load capacity values with the stiffness. The bearing capability of the soil was found to be medium-stiff at depths of 2 and 3 meters, but soft at depths of 4 and 5 meters. At depths of 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 meters, the bearing capacity is stiff to&nbsp;very stiff.</p> Abdulhussien N. Alaatabi Ahmed J. Fakher Mohammed L. Hussein Riyadh Ashoor Haneen M. Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-24 2022-09-24 82 93 10.46717/igj.55.2C.7ms-2022-08-20 Microfacies Analysis and Depositional Environments of Lower Sa’adi Formation, Southern Iraq https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/999 <p>The Sa’adi Formation is a part of the late Cretaceous period in the Santonian-Campanian stage that represents a potential hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir across many oilfields in the Mesopotamian Basin, South of Iraq. The Formation was divided into two main parts as a stratigraphy sequence. It consists of chalky limestone with argillaceous limestone in the upper part and limestone with marly limestone in the lower part. The lower part is considered an important stratigraphic unit marked by petroleum shows. Thus, current research constructs the depositional environment, evaluates the reservoir, and predicts the best zones with good reservoir quality. The microfacies analysis was carried out on thirty-five thin sections to reveal the primary depositional environment, and well logs data were used to evaluate the petrophysical properties of the lower Sa’adi Formation. Four microfacies appeared related to the carbonate ramp, which identified the depositional system track from mid to inner ramp. These are; mudstone, wackestone, packstone, and grainstone. Twelve sub-microfacies were identified and interpreted in the lower Sa’adi Formation. These are pelagic lime mudstone to benthic foraminiferal-argillaceous wackestone in middle ramp experienced burial diagenesis and syngenetic diagenesis with intra-fossil pores. The results characterize the bioclast echinoderms, bivalves, and algae packstone to grainstone in inner ramp (open marine and shoal environments) experienced marine pore-water diagenesis, meteoric freshwater dissolution, and burial diagenesis. Shoal facies with open marine facies are the best favorable microfacies in the lower Sa’adi Formation. Diagenesis processes were represented by dissolution that improved the porosity and permeability with higher reservoir quality in the inner ramp; besides that, it was recognized that cementation and micritization reduced the reservoir&nbsp;quality in the middle ramp.</p> Adyan A. Mazban Mohanad H. Al-Jaberi Methaq K. Al Jafar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-24 2022-09-24 94 107 10.46717/igj.55.2C.8ms-2022-08-21 Estimation of Initial Oil in Place for Buzurgan Oil Field by Using Volumetric Method and Reservoir Simulation Method https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/1080 <p>The estimation of the initial oil in place is a crucial topic in the period of exploration, appraisal, and development of the reservoir. In the current work, two conventional methods were used to determine the Initial Oil in Place. These two methods are a volumetric method and a reservoir simulation method. Moreover, each method requires a type of data whereet al the volumetric method depends on geological, core, well log and petrophysical properties data while the reservoir simulation method also needs capillary pressure versus water saturation, fluid production and static pressure data for all active wells at the Mishrif reservoir. The petrophysical properties for the studied reservoir is calculated using neural network technique from 13 cored and logged wells. The results showed that the reservoir simulation method gave a value of Initial Oil in Place that agrees and is close to the value of Initial Oil in Place obtained from the volumetric method with a percentage different around 2%. However, the estimation of Initial Oil in Place by reservoir simulation method offered accurate results during good history matching with observed data as well as making appropriate adjusting for Pc vs. Sw values for the whole reservoir from October, 1976 until December, 2020. MB21 unit own most Initial Oil in Place equal to 525*10<sup>6</sup> SM<sup>3</sup> while MB12 has lowest initial oil in place equal to 2*10<sup>6</sup> SM<sup>3</sup>.&nbsp; Finally, the calculation of Intial Oil in Place by both volumetric and simulation methods presented good results while comparing&nbsp;with previous study at 2013 with discovered different around 1.5% and 0.6% respectively.</p> Ahmed K. Alhusseini Sameera Hamd-Allah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-25 2022-09-25 108 122 10.46717/igj.55.2C.9ms-2022-08-22 Flood Susceptibility Mapping Using an Analytic Hierarchy Process Model Based on Remote Sensing and GIS Approaches in Akre District, Kurdistan Region, Iraq https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/1059 <p>In recent decades, floods have been the most common, complex, and destructive natural calamities worldwide. Hence, for inclusive flood risk assessment, creating flood susceptibility mapping to demarcate flood-vulnerable zones is fundamental for decision makers. To assess flood-prone locations in the Akre, Iraqi Kurdistan Region, fundamental for susceptibility mapping was undertaken using geographic information systems, remote sensing, and an analytic hierarchy process model. To assess flood susceptibility, the geographic information systems framework used 15 ideal causative factors for flooding: altitude, slope, distance to streams, flow accumulation, drainage density, rainfall, soil type, lithology, curvature, topographic wetness index (TWI), topographic roughness index stream power index, stream transport index, land use/land cover, and normalized difference vegetation index. The factors contributing to flooding were optimally weighted with respect to the proposed model. The final flood susceptibility map was reclassified into five different classes of susceptibility to flooding: very low (16.64% of the study area); low (19.53%); moderate (38.92%); high (17.83%); and very high (7.08%). The area under curve values for the predicted rate and success rate of the AHP model were 0.956 and 0.971, respectively. Therefore, the results were accurate and reliable. The AHP model is a powerful method for fundamental for susceptibility mapping to mitigate the serious impacts of flooding and assist&nbsp;scholars, local governments and policymakers in future master planning.</p> Kaiwan K. Fatah Yaseen T. Mustafa maddadin O. Hassan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-25 2022-09-25 123 151 10.46717/igj.55.2C.10ms-2022-08-23 Lineament Analysis by Using Remote Sensing and GIS Technique of Sangaw Area, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/899 <p>Recently, structural lineaments have typically been increasingly emphasized in morphotectonic research because they are thought to be an excellent guide for determining tectonic settings and fracture zones in rocks. ERDAS Software was used to extract and analyze the lineaments within the Sangaw ‎area, which is located in the northeastern part of Iraq. This study employed a Digital Elevation Model from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission with a resolution of 30 meters. Directional filtering was used to extract the lineaments in four distinct directions (N-S, E-W, NE-SW, NW-SE). The overall trend’s direction of the lineaments is determined to be NW-SE, indicating that the area was succeeding the main tendency of Zagros folds. According to the density map of the lineaments, the low and medium-density lineaments occupy the main portion of the study area. The direction of the maximum tectonic stress and the rotation of the Arabian Plate counterclockwise led to the formation of joints in multiple directions, which were clarified by the system of lineaments’ relationships in harmony with the directions of the tectonic stresses and their contrast and effects. The field study showed high density and distinct&nbsp;activity in the study area of erosion and weathering processes as well as tectonic.</p> Azealdeen S. Al-Jawadi Azhar Kh. S. Bety Omar A. Ismaeel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-25 2022-09-25 152 163 10.46717/igj.55.2C.11ms-2022-08-24 Structural Geology Study of Tuba Oilfield, Southern Iraq https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/821 <p>Tuba oilfield is one of the Iraqi oilfields located in southern Iraq within the Mesopotamian Plain. The main purpose of this study is to carry out a structural geology analysis of the Tuba oilfield. The structural analysis included geometric and genetic analyses of the study area. According to geometric and genetic analysis results, some formations folds are classified as Thickened folds and others as Supratenuous folds. Two folding mechanisms (bending and buckle) are characterized as responsible for folding the Tuba structure. The bending mechanism forms a Supratenuous fold, perhaps due to the vertical force of salt structure and/or basement faults, while the buckle produces Thickened fold because of the horizontal force of the collision between the Arabian Plate and Eurasian Plate. The correlation sections and contour maps show that the structural development of the Tuba oilfield may be less than adjacent oilfields (Zubair and Rumaila oilfields). The fold axis of the Tuba oilfield is NW-SE, and this is perhaps attributed to the anticlockwise motion of the Arabian Plate. The results of geometric and genetic analyses may be revealed that the Tuba oilfield was formed by tectonic activities (Hormuz salt, basement faults, and collision between Arabian and Eurasian Plates) with intensity less than surrounding oilfields.</p> Aymen Adil Lazim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-25 2022-09-25 164 174 10.46717/igj.55.2C.12ms-2022-08-25 Employing Geophysical Techniques to Detect and Assess Groundwater Pollution at El-Akader Landfill North Jordan https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/934 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;A geophysical study was conducted for the El-Akader landfill to determine its impact on groundwater, which is located along the northern road of Jaber International Road, north Jordan, which covers an area of 0.806km<sup>2</sup>. it was commissioned in 1981 to be the only municipal landfill at north Jordan and it is considered the second-largest landfill in the country. A geoelectrical survey was conducted in the study area using the Vertical Electrical Sounding and an electromagnetic survey using the Transit Electromagnetic. Upon analyzing the 42 TEM loops and performing geoelectrical cross-sections, landfill leachate is found to be concentrated below the dumping site and its surroundings and would infiltrate down to about 200 m below the land surface. The results of the Vertical Electrical Sounding revealed that the depth of groundwater to be around 300 m with a resistivity of less than 5-ohm.m. It also indicates that the leachate is moving mainly vertically, which confirms the TEM results. Contaminants are detected in water samples collected from several nearby wells which indicates a horizontal movement of the landfill leachate which would have been penetrated&nbsp;down through inferred faults and deep fractures detected in the area.</p> Eid A. Al-Tarazi Baker M. Ababneh Eqab M. El-Rabie Fatima k. Ghanem ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-25 2022-09-25 175 188 10.46717/igj.55.2C.13ms-2022-08-26 Dynamic Source Parameters of Significant Earthquakes in the Gulf of Aqaba, Egypt https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/1051 <p>Several seismological and paloseismolgical studies and historical reports have indicated that Gulf of Aqaba is characterized by higher seismicity than any other seismogenic sources around Egypt. Accordingly, surrounding areas have been impacted by several destructive earthquakes (AD 1068, AD 1212, AD 1229, AD 1458, and AD 1995). Cities situated around the Gulf of Aqaba have experienced different damage levels due to historical and instrumental earthquakes resulting in considerable fatalities. The Aqaba earthquake which occurred on November 22, 1995 (Moment magnitude (Mw) = 7.3) was the largest recorded earthquake along with the Dead Sea Fault System, strongly felt in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Many seismic sequences have occurred in the Gulf of Aqaba in the last decades and some of them continued for almost two years.&nbsp;This paper applies a spectral decomposition method based on a reference site to correct the source spectra from the path and site effects by employing Iterative Least Square analysis. The obtained displacement source spectra are modulated with Brune’s omega square type spectrum. The dynamic earthquake parameters are computed using the S-wave window<strong>&nbsp;</strong>for the significant Gulf of Aqaba earthquakes. 50 earthquakes have been used in this study with Ml 3.0 to 6. The calculated seismic moments range spans from 1.48E+19 to 2.193E+22 dyne-cm, and the corner frequency range spans from 4.1 to 8.5 Hz. The source radii span which ranges from 84.3 m to 173.4 meters. The</p> Hazem Badreldin Hamada Saadalla Ahmed Abu El-Ata Abd el-aziz Khairy Abd el-aal Amir Mahr Lala ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-25 2022-09-25 189 199 10.46717/igj.55.2C.14ms-2022-08-27 Assessment of Altawseea Ordinary Portland Cement Northern Iraq: Mineralogy, Microstructure, and Hydration https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/1095 <p>The current study is an assessment of the Al-Tawsseea Cement Plant, located in the northwest of Iraq, Nineveh. This plant produces Ordinary Portland Cement grade (42.5R) according to the I.Q.S No(5)/2019. Ordinary Portland Cement was chosen to determine the mineralogy using X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscope before and after hydration. Physical tests were carried out such as the Fineness Test (Blain) ( 331.4) M<sup>2</sup>/Kg, Soundness Test (Autoclave) 0.1%&nbsp; Compressive Strength Test (2 Days 22.35 N/mm<sup>2</sup> and after 28 Days 47.81 N/mm<sup>2</sup>) and Setting Time Test (Initial 150 Min and Final&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 3:10 Hours) and all the physical tests are within the requirements of limits according to I.Q.S No(5)/2019. XRD analyses revealed that the studied cement is composed of alite, belite, ferrite, and aluminate which indicate good burning and cooling processes, while after hydration the paste is composed of CSH, CH, and Ettringite. The Scanning Electron Microscope showed that the studied Ordinary Portland Cement microstructure, characterized by an intensive intergrowth of hypidiomorphic crystals and belite (spherical to oval shape) is less but bigger than alite. After hydration, the microstructure became dense and calcium-silicate hydrate (C-S-H ) formed a lathe-like shape fill the pores of the cement paste and gave the paste hardness and good compressive strength. The pore diameters in studied Ordinary Portland Cement are ranging from 9.9 to more than 15.9 µm. They look like circular or irregular shape and are randomly distributed which decrease the density, and compressive strength of the paste. According to the results of the physical test and mineralogy microstructure, we can say that it is possible to raise the grade of&nbsp; Ordinary Portland Cement of the Al-Tawseea Cement Plant ( 42.5R) by increasing the proportion of calcium in the raw materials mixture within the specification. This will lead to an increase in the value of LSF and the C3S which is responsible for increasing hardness or compressive strength.</p> Younus M. Al-Jiboory Sawsan H. Al-hazaa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-25 2022-09-25 200 210 10.46717/igj.55.2C.15ms-2022-08-28 Investigation the Origins of Groundwater Salinity in Baghdad City by Using Environmental Isotopes and Hydrochemical Techniques https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/1385 <p>The hydrochemical and isotopic techniques have become one of the most popular and successful methods for determining the hydrogeochemical features of groundwater in recent years. A total of 15 samples were collected during wet (March, 2021) and dry (August, 2021) seasons. An approach with major elements (Cl<sup>-</sup>, Na<sup>+</sup>, Mg<sup>2+</sup>, Ca<sup>2+</sup>, and SO<sub>4</sub> <sup>2=</sup>) and multi-isotope (<sup>2</sup>H, <sup>18</sup>O) are used in this study to solve the geochemical variation of salinity in groundwater in Baghdad. The results of the analysis of groundwater samples in the study area showed that the major cations were Ca<sup>2+</sup> and Na<sup>+</sup>, while the major anion was SO<sub>4</sub>, Cl, and HCO<sub>3</sub>. The Ca-SO<sub>4</sub> and Ca-Na-Cl-SO<sub>4</sub>. hydrochemical facies are the dominant hydrochemical facies of groundwater on the Al-Karakh and Al-Russafa sides, respectively. Ca-HCO<sub>3</sub> was found to be the dominant hydrochemical facies of the Tigris River. Human activities and geochemical processes may have caused differences in hydrochemical Facies. According to isotope analysis, the study area has multiple sources of salinity. This can be attributed to the effects of natural dissolution of the salt compounds, mixing with sewage, and industrial water sink. The results and data from this work can be used to research&nbsp;groundwater recharge and interaction, as well as to protect groundwater quality.</p> Jassim M. Alhalbaasi Abdulhameed A. Alhadaithy Kamal B. Al-Paruany ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-25 2022-09-25 211 222 10.46717/igj.55.2C.16ms-2022-08-29 Biostratigraphy of the Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene Succession in Selected Wells, Jambur Oil field, Kirkuk, Northern Iraq https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/974 <p>The Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene Shiranish and Aliji formations have been studied in three selected wells in Jambur Oil Field (Ja-50, Ja-53, and Ja-67) in Kirkuk, Northeastern Iraq. This study included lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy. The Late Campanian-Maastrichtian Shiranish Formation consist mainly of thin marly and chalky limestone beds overlain by thin marl beds, with some beds of marly limestone representing an outer shelf basinal environment, the unconformable contact with the above Middle Paleocene-Early Eocene Aliji Formation contain layers of limestone with marly limestone and chalky limestone which represents an outer shelf basinal environment. Five Biozones in the Shiranish Formation were determined which are:&nbsp; 1. <em>Globotruncanita calcarata</em> Range Zone (part). 2.<em>Globotruncanella havanensis</em> Partial Range Zone. 3. <em>Globotruncana aegyptiaca</em> Interval Zone. 4.<em>Gansserina gansseri</em> Interval Zone (Part). 5. <em>Abathomphalus mayaroensis</em> Range Zone. While in Aliji Formation there were two biozones determined which are: 1. <em>Guembelitria Cretacea</em> Partial-Range Zone. 2.<em>Parvularugoglobigerina&nbsp;eugubina Total-Range Zone.</em></p> Ghada Mahdi Sahib Salam I. M. Al-Dulaimi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-25 2022-09-25 223 240 10.46717/igj.55.2C.17ms-2022-08-30