The Iraqi Geological Journal <p>The <strong><em>Iraqi Geological Journal (IGJ)</em></strong> is a peer-reviewed and indexed journal, issued twice a year in English by the Union of Iraqi Geologists (UIG).&nbsp;</p> The Union of Iraqi Geologists en-US The Iraqi Geological Journal 2414-6064 Application of Electrical Resistivity Method for Detections of Subsurface Karst Hazards within the State Company for Glass and Refractories in Ar-Ramadi City, Iraq <p>The electrical resistivity method has been accomplished for the detection of subsurface karst hazards using Dipole – dipole and Wenner – Schlumberger arrays with an a-spacing equal to 1m and n-factor 6 at three selected stations. The results indicate the area formed a weakness zone as two separated zones, the first at an approximate depth (2.5-5) m within the quaternary deposits and the second weakness zone within Injana Formation deposits at an approximate depth (7 – &gt;12) m. The investigation advises conducting physical, chemical and engineering site investigations to decide the suitable treatment techniques to solve these problems.</p> Amina M. Salman Ali M. Al-Rahim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-05-25 2023-05-25 1 8 10.46717/igj.56.1E.1ms-2023-5-11 Studying the Effect of Permeability Prediction on Reservoir History Matching by Using Artificial Intelligence and Flow Zone Indicator Methods <p>The map of permeability distribution in the reservoirs is considered one of the most essential steps of the geologic model building due to its governing the fluid flow through the reservoir which makes it the most influential parameter on the history matching than other parameters. For that, it is the most petrophysical properties that are tuned during the history matching. Unfortunately, the prediction of the relationship between static petrophysics (porosity) and dynamic petrophysics (permeability) from conventional wells logs has a sophisticated problem to solve by conventional statistical methods for heterogeneous formations. For that, this paper examines the ability and performance of the artificial intelligence method in permeability prediction and compared its results with the flow zone indicator methods for a carbonate heterogeneous Iraqi formation. The methodology of the research can be Summarized by permeability was estimated by using two methods: Flow zone indicator and Artificial intelligence, two reservoir models are built, where the difference between them is in permeability method estimation, and the simulation run will be conducted on both of the models, and the permeability estimation methods will be examined by comparing their effect on the model history matching. The results showed that the model with permeability predicted by using artificial intelligence matched the observed data for different reservoir responses more accurately than the model with permeability predicted by the flow zone indicator method. That conclusion is represented by good matching between observed data and simulated results for all reservoir responses such for the artificial intelligence model than the flow zone&nbsp;indicator model.</p> Mustafa R. Abdul Hmeed Sameera M. Hamd-Allah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-05-25 2023-05-25 9 21 10.46717/igj.56.1E.2ms-2023-5-12 Depositional and Stratigraphic Evolution of the Mishrif Formation in Eridu Oil Field, Southwestern Iraq <p>This study is achieved in the local area in the Eridu oil field, where the Mishrif Formation is considered the main productive reservoir. The Mishrif Formation was deposited during the Cretaceous period in the secondary sedimentary cycle (Cenomanian-Early Turonian as a part of the Wasia Group a carbonate succession and widespread throughout the Arabian Plate. There are four association facies are identified in Mishrif Formation according to the microfacies analysis: FA1-Deep shelf facies association (Outer Ramp); FA2-Slope (Middle Ramp); FA3-Reef facies (Shoal) association (Inner ramp); FA4-Back Reef facies association. Sequence stratigraphic analysis show there are three stratigraphic surfaces based on the abrupt changing in depositional environments, one of them ((Mishrif–Kifl unconformity) is regionally correlated with the other equivalent formations in surrounding countries within the Arabian Plate. And intra- Mishrif's two surfaces are maximum flooding surfaces which represent the deepening up-ward association facies. Two major sequences are identified based on the behaviors of facies association within a sequence of stratigraphic boundaries and system tracts. These sequences include sequence I and sequence II.</p> Mohammed A. Al-Mashhdani Aiad A. Al-Zaidy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-05-25 2023-05-25 22 42 10.46717/igj.56.1E.3ms-2023-5-13 A Survey of Infill Well Location Optimization Techniques <p>The maximization of the net present value of the investment in oil field improvements is greatly aided by the optimization of well location, which plays a significant role in the production of oil. However, using of optimization methods in well placement developments is exceedingly difficult since the well placement optimization scenario involves a large number of choice variables, objective functions, and restrictions. In addition, a wide variety of computational approaches, both traditional and unconventional, have been applied in order to maximize the efficiency of well installation operations. This research demonstrates how optimization approaches used in well placement have progressed since the last time they were examined. Following that, the research looked at a variety of different optimization strategies, and it demonstrated the limitations of each strategy as well as the scope of its application in order to achieve a suitable level of accuracy and simulation run time. In conclusion, this study presents an all-encompassing analysis of the well location optimization approaches that are applied in the petroleum engineering area, ranging from traditional methods to contemporary methods that make use of artificial intelligence.</p> Zainab A. Al-Rubiay Omer F. Al-Fatlawi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-05-25 2023-05-25 43 51 10.46717/igj.56.1E.4ms-2023-5-14 Interpretation of Petrophysical Properties in Reservoir Rock Using Capillary Pressure Data of the Mishrif Formation in West Qurna Oilfield, Southern Iraq <p>In this study, capillary pressure tests for twenty-nine samples acquired from four wells, (Rn-83, WQ-155, WQ286, and WQ-355) were used to estimate pore size distribution, pore-throat sorting, displacement pressure, reservoir grade, oil column, effective porosity, and relative permeability of the Mishrif Formation at West Qurna Oilfield, southern Iraq. Interpretation of capillary pressure data revealed that the formation can be divided into four reservoir facies with different reservoir production performances: very good, good, medium, and poor. The facies with very good performance is characterized by large pore sizes, excellent reservoir grade, low displacement pressure, and high oil saturations. The good facies is characterized by the presence of good pore throat sorting, good reservoir grade, and good porosity. Contrary, Medium-performance reservoir facies are characterized by the presence of medium pore sizes, medium pore throat sorting, and medium reservoir grade. Poorly performing reservoir facies is characterized by small pore size, high displacement pressure, poor throat sorting, and high water saturation levels. Based on the relative permeability calculations some samples are wet with water (water-wet), while others are&nbsp;wet with oil (oil-wet).</p> Fatimah K. Hendi Amna M. Handhal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-05-25 2023-05-25 52 67 10.46717/igj.56.1E.5ms-2023-5-15 Microfacies Analysis and Diagenetic Effects of Middle Jurassic Succession in Rania and Sargelu Sections, Northern Iraq <p>The studied area covers two outcrops they are located within Sulaimaniya, northeastern of Iraq (Rania and Sargelu sections). Sargelu Sections are located in Sargelu village within Unstable Shelf, High Folded Zone, including Surdash anticline, while Rania Sections are located in Rania city near Hanjira village within the Unstable Shelf, High Folded Zone, including Shaweri anticline. The carbonates represent the major microfacies and constitute of lime mudstone microfacies, lime wackestone microfacies, Calcisphere-Posidonia lime wackestone sub microfacies, posidonia lime wackestone sub microfacies, lime packstone microfacies, Posidonia lime packstone submicrofacies, Posidonia-Ostacoda lime packstone sub microfacies, lime Crystalline Microfacies. The observations of studied area show that the basin of the Sargelu Formation represents a deep part of a ramp system. These microfacies are variably affected by several diagenetic processes including mechanical and chemical compaction, cementation, recrystallization and dolomitization. The chert shows a high degree of quartz crystallinity which indicates a diagenetically product from the amorphous silica of the many radiolarians, a remnant of which is preserved in several units of the Sargelu Formation</p> Haider A. Al-Tarim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-05-25 2023-05-25 68 83 10.46717/igj.56.1E.6ms-2023-5-16 The Diagenesis Processes of the Hartha Formation in Majnoon Oil Field, Southern Iraq <p>The Hartha Formation is the shallowest of the major Majnoon oil field reservoirs. It is a 120 m thick carbonate platform deposit with an age of the Upper Campanian - Maastrichtian. It overlies the regional top of the Sa'di Formation unconformity and is in turn overlain by the Shiranish Formation. This research concentrated on diagenetic processes and petrophysical properties in the Hartha Formation in the Majnoon Oilfield, located in southern Iraq. The Hartha Formation was deposited on a carbonate ramp setting. It is subdivided into four main zones (A1, A2, B1, and B2), where A2 is the majority reservoir. Sixity of thin sections were made from several wells (MJ-29, MJ-47, MJ-88, MJ-91, MJ-92, and MJ-93). This formation was influenced by a number of digenetic processes, such as neomorphism, cementation, dolomitization, dissolution, and compaction. Dolomitization, dissolution, and cementation are the three main diagenetic processes in the current study. Detailed petrographic analysis of the dolomitization indicates that the dolomite formed is of two types (pervasive and selective) in the formation. The formation is affected by tectonic subsidence which is the main controlling factor that achieved the paleogeography of the study area. This produced different thicknesses of the formation along the structure, and the facies that formed the formation varied as a result of the variation of the relative sea level. This study aims to determine the extent of the impact of diagenetic processes on the porosity of the formation and thus impacts the quality of the formation.</p> Sawsan R. Abed Mohanad H. Al-Jaberi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-05-25 2023-05-25 84 96 10.46717/igj.56.1E.7ms-2023-5-17 Detecting Oxides Mineralization Utilizing Remote Sensing and Comprehensive Mineralogical Analysis: A Case Study Around Mikbi-Zayatit District, South Eastern Desert, Egypt <p>Undoubtedly, involving more tools, datasets, and techniques for detecting the mineralized areas sharply narrow the zones to be investigated and delivered, in most cases highly potential zones. Consequently, this study is an attempt to apply remote sensing data including Sentinel 2 and ASTER, field observations, petrography of the hydrothermal alteration processes, ore microscopic investigations, X-ray examinations, and EDX analysis to detect and emphasize mineralization types at Wadi Mikbi and Wadi Zayatit district, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Towards accurate lithological mapping, remote sensing data, previous geological maps, and the field investigations recorded serpentinites, ophiolitic metagabbros, amphibolites, epidosite, arc-related metasediments (schists and quartzites), metagabbro-tonalite complex, dunite, olivine gabbros, and granitic rocks encountered in the study district. Additionally, various hydrothermal alteration zones have been primarily outlined using ASTER and Sentinel 2 data by implementing informative band ratios and constrained energy minimization techniques. The mineralogical studies have confirmed most of the remotely-detected hydrothermal alteration minerals. Ore microscopy, XRD technique, and EDX microchemical analysis of representative mineralized samples of the study district identified magnetite, ilmenite, titanomagnetite, chromite, magnesioferrite, quartz, apatite, clinochlore, plagioclase, pyroxene and epidote. Cross-linking remote sensing results, field observations and laboratory studies revealed that the dominant hydrothermal alteration processes include oxidization, serpentinization, carbonatization, epidotization, silicification, zoisitization, muscovitization, sericitization, and chloritization. Spatial overlay analysis of the resultant altered features, structural dissection, field observations, and analytical studies were integrated to build a mineral potentiality map of the study district.</p> Hatem El-Desoky Ali Shebl Hamada El-Awny Mahmoud El-Rahmany Omar Soliman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-05-25 2023-05-25 97 130 10.46717/igj.56.1E.8ms-2023-5-18 Groundwater Risk Mapping Model Using GIS of Al-Khassa Upstream Sub-Basin, Kirkuk, Iraq <p>&nbsp;Groundwater pollution is considered a serious threat to the environment and humanity in general. The presence of contaminated groundwater in wells allows us to identify risks, especially in the study area. Therefore, studies must be conducted using modern techniques to determine risks. The objective of this study is to produce a map show zones of groundwater at risk. The groundwater risk maps based on the combination of two criteria are groundwater vulnerability and land uses/land covers map using GIS and QGIS software. In addition, validation work for groundwater risk map with heavy metals pollution index. The results risk map are range between 94-202 (very low, low, medium, high, and very high) i.e. five zones. The study area has very low - medium risk on the eastern and northeastern sides and some areas in the west; while the rest areas represent a high - very high risk.</p> Madyan R. Al-Gburi Omer S. Al-Tamimi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-05-25 2023-05-25 131 141 10.46717/igj.56.1E.9ms-2023-5-19 Identification of Erosivity Potential on Tropical Zone Using Spatial Method <p>As a geological process that wears away soil, rock, or dissolved material, erosion may result in the loss of soil layers that are rich in nutrients for plant growth and reduce soil ability to absorb and store water. High rainfall causes a high level of erosivity which can lead to the increase in erosion intensity. Therefore, in predicting erosion, rain condition needs to be considered the most, especially for the tropics. This study was conducted in Samboja District, East Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. The purpose of this study is to create zoning potential for erosion based on topographic correlation with land cover and support practices factors spatially in a map form. The uniform distribution of soil types allows the integration of the erodibility factor together with the erosivity factor. Several erosion equations suitable for tropical areas were used to estimate the erosion, using the BMKG rainfall data for the last 16 years (2006-2020). The results of the study are maps of erosion potential distribution at minimum, maximum, and average conditions. The change in the distribution of potential erosion from the minimum to the average occurred only at very limited points, and it was almost negligible. A significant change was found under condition of maximum erosion potential. The striking change in the zone of potential erosion under condition of the average to the maximum potential for erosion occurred in the zone from Class III to Class IV, and Class IV to Class V.</p> Supandi Supandi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-05-25 2023-05-25 142 155 10.46717/igj.56.1E.10ms-2023-5-20 Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments of the Coastal Area Around Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, Indonesia: Their Relations to Land-Use Types <p>The province of Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY) has experienced significant changes in urbanization, industry, and tourism, making it one of Indonesia's fastest-growing areas. Increased anthropogenic activity in the coastal region may cause heavy metal contamination in that zone to grow. Based on different land-use types, this study examined the distribution of heavy metals, namely cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn), in surface sediment. It assessed the feasibility of sediment quality standards based on the Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines (CSQG). Nine stations made up the sampling site, each representing a different land-use type, including mangrove ecosystem, tourist attraction, airport, harbor, mining area, bare land, shrimp pond, agricultural land, and settlement. The concentrations of Cd in bare land, shrimp pond, agricultural land, and settlement (with values of 2.707, 2.955, 2.983, and 2.873, respectively), and Cu in the mangrove ecosystem (with values of 42.893) slightly exceeded the corresponding Threshold Effect Level (TEL) value of CSQG. Meanwhile, the content of other heavy metals in all land use types tends to be low, even below the Limit of Detection (LOD). The data on the level of heavy metal pollution in the study area shows no connection between heavy metal contamination and different land-use types. It is brought on by a variety of circumstances, such as the fact that human activity in the study area did not significantly contribute to heavy metal contamination or that heavy metals were contaminated and then spread to other forms of land-use types, in this case, the mangrove ecosystem, by runoff and wind. This is because variations in salinity, estuary flushing, physical mixing and dilution, and chemical processes, including sorption, complexation, cation exchange, and redox reactions, all affect how heavy metals are transported by water. The government should create environmental regulations, laws, quality norms and standards, more funding for cutting-edge scientific research, and technical tools to prevent heavy metal pollution in coastal areas. &nbsp;</p> Adam S. Putra Akhmad Zamroni Andrea S. Asih Saurina T. Sagala Keshia N. Tingson ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-05-25 2023-05-25 156 168 10.46717/igj.56.1E.11ms-2023-5-21 Morphological Evolution and Sedimentological Study of the Essaouira Bay and the Mouth of Oued Ksob, Essaouira, Morocco <p>The coastline of Essaouira is located on the Atlantic coast of Morocco. The Bay of this city is a large sandy system strongly marked by coastal and fluvial dynamics, which makes it a perfect example of sedimentology processes in a Bay area. using of satellite imagery allows us to determine the morphological evolution of the Essaouira Bay and the mouth of Oued Ksob. The results of the study show that the evolution of the coastline of the Essaouira Bay with areas of erosion and others in accumulation. The analysis of satellite images allows us to distinguish three very different sectors: the first is north of the estuary of Oued Ksob, this area receives most of the flood contributions of Oued Ksob, which helps to maintain its morpho-sedimentary balance. The second sector, which is composed of the estuary and the mouth of the Oued Ksob, is characterized by a hydrodynamic both fluvial and maritime. The third sector is located south of the estuary of Oued Ksob, which is not affected by the effect of the presence of the obstacle on the island of Mogador. The sedimentological study is carried out in four different areas, which are: the dunes, the mouth of Oued Ksob, which has undergone numerous recorded positions since the late 19th century, the area south of the estuary, and the area north of the mouth. Several analyses were carried out namely: granulometry, morphoscopy, calcimetry, and X-ray diffraction, which confirmed that the origin of the studied sediments is both continental and marine.</p> Salma Ezzahzi Abdellah A. Algouti Ahmed A. Algouti Baid A. Soukaina Elghouat A. Akram ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-05-25 2023-05-25 169 181 10.46717/igj.56.1E.12ms-2023-5-22 Flood Risk Analysis in Potential Points, Zerin City in Erbil as a Case Study <p>The city of Erbil, the capital of the Kurdistan Region-Iraq, is exposed to frequent floods and cause human and material losses. The current research is analysis of floods as a case study on Zerin City, which was exposed to flood last session 2021-2022. The analysis is based on using different Hydrologic software and digital elevation models, soil data, rainfall data and land use data, were used in order to determine the boundary of catchment area, the area extension of flood plain, depth of flood, water velocity through hydrologic modeling. The results showed that there is a big similarity between the real flood and the modeled flood. Some of the natural water streamlines (valleys) have been filled and the remaining were unable to pass the excess flow generated by the storm. The agricultural lands were not ploughed due to the late rains in this season. Accordingly, increase in the curve number CN (the estimated CN was 79) have been used, the flood inundation, water depth, and velocity through the modeling rainfall storm of return period 50 years on the Zerin City has been done in modeling. The results are a scientific tool that can be used to assess the damages of the study area, and is useful for decision makers.</p> Anwer H. Dawood Dana K. Mawlood ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-05-25 2023-05-25 182 193 10.46717/igj.56.1E.13ms-2023-5-23 Environmental Threat of Soil Erosion in the Gwang Khola Watershed, Chure Region of Nepal <p>Chure, also known as the foothills of the Himalayas that extends from east to west of Nepal, is an essential region due to the hotspot of biological diversity and various natural resources, including recharge groundwater for the Tarai region of the country. However, the Chure region has a high rate of soil erosion due to human activities and natural processes, a severe issue in the Chure region. This study looked at soil erosion in the Gwang Khola watershed in the Chure region. We used the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model to measure soil loss by soil erosion. The results showed that about 547,992.9 tons of soil were lost annually in the Gwang Khola watershed. The results indicated that 5,259.87 hectares of the land area were in a very low-risk zone for soil erosion. Similarly, 317.79 hectares of land had a moderate risk of soil degradation, while 13.59 hectares of forest area posed a high threat. The extreme-risk erosion area was situated above 1,250 m. In contrast, the moderate and the low-risk regions of soil erosion had a lower elevation range of 950 m to 1,250 m and 650 m to 950 m, respectively. The findings of this study may aid planners and policymakers in preventing soil erosion and protecting the ecosystem in this watershed and those with similar&nbsp;circumstances.</p> Basanta K. Neupane Umesh K. Mandal Ayad M. F. Al-Quraishi Mehmet Ozdemir Raju Rai ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-05-25 2023-05-25 194 206 10.46717/igj.56.1E.14ms-2023-5-24 Evaluating the Groundwater and Surface Water Interaction in Southwest Iraq Using Environmental Isotopes Technique <p>This study aims to use the environmental isotopes technique to evaluate the interaction between groundwater and surface water at a location between two cities in the southwest of Iraq; namely Al-Kifl and Al-Samawa. The salinity of the Euphrates River water increases sharply as it passes in this area, to a level that affects its usage for municipal purposes. A total of 111 samples were collected from the rivers, drainages, springs, shallow and deep wells, and from Sawa Lake, and all the samples were subjected to chemical (TDS, SO<sub>4</sub>, Cl, and B) and isotopic (deuterium and oxygen-18) analyses. The chemical and isotopic results showed no interference between the quality of the groundwater (from wells and springs) and Sawa Lake water with the Euphrates River water, in the study area, and hence, neither the groundwater nor Sawa Lake affects the river water quality. Statistically, the t-test analysis showed significant differences among those water samples (p-values less than 0.05 for almost all the chemical and isotopic parameters). On the other hand, drainage water showed a strong relationship to the river water, which indicates a high and strong influence of the drainage water on the river water quality when it mixes with the Euphrates River water.</p> Saadi K. Al-Naseri Mohammed I. Abdul-Razaq Ali H. Falih ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-05-25 2023-05-25 207 216 10.46717/igj.56.1E.15ms-2023-5-25 Engineering, Geophysical Investigation of a Multistory Building, at Hilla, Iraq, Utilizing the MASW Method <p>The Multi-Channel Method for Surface Waves (MASW) was used to estimate the average velocity of shear waves in order to construct an engineering structure and its relationship to bearing capacity, foundation depth and soil thickness in this construct in the center of Hilla city. Active MASW was used in this study which allows us to measure the apparent dispersion curve or the phase velocity within the frequency range from 5 to 70 Hz, which gives information about the shallow layers (25-50 m) and depending on the ground hardness and spreading length. Where it was found that this area consists of two layers and each layer has a shear velocity, as the first layer has shear velocity (171.891) m/sec and the depth (8.244) m and the second layer has shear velocity (274.788) m/sec and the maximum bearing capacity value relative to the depth of the foundation is 1, 2 and 3 is 4.46, 5.27 and 5.96 T/m<sup>2</sup> respectively. According to this study, this area is suitable for constructing an engineering structure on it.</p> Zainab M.J. Saify Amer A.L. Alkhalidy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-05-26 2023-05-26 217 227 10.46717/igj.56.1E.16ms-2023-5-26 Comparing the Results of Geotechnical Tests with the Well Seismic Survey to Find the Dynamic Modulus of Elasticity for the Surface Soil Sections in Hilla City <p>The study area for Babylon Governorate is located roughly 110 kilometers from Baghdad, Iraq's capital city. Approximately 5,119 km<sup>2</sup> of Iraq's total land area is occupied by it. The most common wind direction in Iraq is northwest. The results of the cross-hole survey using P and S-wave timings and velocities were discovered through a geophysical analysis of the area. In depths of 1 to 10 meters, the P-wave velocity was 482.01 m/sec and the S-wave velocity was 180.11 m/sec. 1.6-1.8 kn/m<sup>3</sup> was the average bulk density of the research area's soils, with the lowest value of 1.6 kn/m<sup>3</sup> in the depths of 1m and the highest value of 1.8 kn/m<sup>3</sup> at 10 m. At depths of 1 to 10 meters, internal friction angles (ɸ) ranged from 15 to 30 degrees. The velocity &nbsp;values of P and S-wave increase with depth from the surface to the depth of 10 m because of the density increase with depth in the soil (the layer compaction or soil load). Based on the ratio of compressional and shear velocities of density, elasticity and geotechnical parameters were determined. There was a wide variation in Poisson's ratio (v) between 1-10 meters, which indicates that the soil in the research area is sandy clay. The soil is considered saturated when Ko is close to 1 and the concentration index Ic exceeds 3.</p> Zahraa N. Jedi Amer A. Al-Khalidy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-05-26 2023-05-26 228 233 10.46717/igj.56.1E.17ms-2023-5-27 Modeling Contamination Transport (Nitrate) in Central Basin Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq with Support of MODFLOW Software <p>Groundwater is one of the essential water resources in the Kurdistan Region and Erbil City. The development leads to depletion in the quality and quantity of groundwater. This study aimed to model groundwater flow in the study area within the central basin and simulate the nitrate transport from the Erbil landfill site for 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 years using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS) version 10.6.2. The study area covers 579.72 km<sup>2</sup>; data about the groundwater observation head was obtained from the general direction of groundwater. A sample of wastewater was taken from landfill leachate to check the its properties. Landfill leachate is considered a point source of contamination. The GMS is a powerful software for modeling groundwater flow and contamination transport. The results show a good correlation between the observed and predicted heads, and the R<sup>2</sup> of the model equals 0.9917. The plume of nitrate contamination spread horizontally and vertically to about 1.5 km downstream landfill and approximately 1.5km upstream landfill. The nitrate reaches the third layer to a depth of more than 325 m after 50 years.</p> Noor K.Y. Yashooa Dana K. Mawlood ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-05-26 2023-05-26 234 246 10.46717/igj.56.1E.18ms-2023-5-28 Engineering and Minerological Characteristics of Sand Dunes of Babylon Governorate, Iraq <p>The engineering and mierological of sand dunes has been investigated in this paper. The engineering characteristics study involved studying the dimensions of the dunes, their slope angles, analyzing the curvature of their surfaces and sieve analysis. The mierological characteristics included XRD, XRF, and Thin section for specimens. The investigated area involved three differnts zones lie in the Babylon Governorate in the cnter of Iraq. The zones are called Ramlet Rashid, Ramlet Albu Faris and Birmana area. It has a desert environment, which is characterized by little rainfall, ranging from 50 to 200 mm annually, and high summer temperatures that can exceed 50°C, with northwest winds dominating. The grain size distribution of the sand was found to be 99% in an engineering study of sand dune soils. According to USCS, the sand is of the type (Sp), which is sandy badly graded. The bulk density of sand dune soils for the study area locations ranged from 1.287 to 1.376 g /cm<sup>3</sup>, The lowest concentration was 1.287 g/cm<sup>3</sup> in the Bermana area (third site), while the highest concentration was 1.376 g/cm3 at the Ramlet Rashid site (first site), with an average of 1.3315 g/cm<sup>3</sup>. The internal friction angle (Ø) for sand dune soils for the research area sites ranged from 33 to 34 in the direct shear test, with the minimum being 33 in Ramlet Rashid and the maximum being 34 in Albu Faris. Having a 33.5 percent rate The convergence of the internal friction angle (Ø) values for sand dunes reflects the deposition environment as well as the geometric characteristics of the sand dunes, Because the soil is SP without cohesion and clays, the cohesion (C) values for all sites are (0). The petrographic investigation of sand rise soils uncovered that quartz is the most light mineral tracked down in all areas, trailed by rock pieces, which include: sedimentary rocks (calcareous rocks, carbonates, chert, evaporites, and earth rock sections), trailed by feldspar (antacid and plagioclase feldspar), and volcanic stone parts, transformative shakes and mud-covered grains. Concerning its weighty minerals parts, for the most part hazy minerals, the chlorite bunch, the mica bunch, the amphibole bunch, the pyroxene bunch, zircon, termolite, garnet, rhyolite, staurolite, kainite, rutile, and different minerals by 1%. X-Ray diffraction test uncovered the presence of quartz, albite and calcite, and X-Ray fluorescence tests showed the presence of silica (SiO<sub>2</sub>) and lime (CaO).</p> Ahmed S. Al-Turaihi Jaffar H. Al-Zubaydi Jwad K. Manii ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-05-26 2023-05-26 247 258 10.46717/igj.56.1E.19ms-2023-5-29 Desertification Assessment for the Marshes Region Using Soil Quality Indicators, Southern Iraq <p>The study aims to conduct an assessment of desertification in the marshlands of southern Iraq by using eight soil indicators. The study area is part of the governorates of Amarah,Basrah and Nasiriyah, with an area of about 27,989 km<sup>2</sup>. The Mediterranean model of desertification and land use model (MEDALUS) was adopted for the assessment of the soil quality indicators. Satellite image processing of Landsat images and ArcGIS v.10.7 programs were used to analyze different data and produce the soil quality index and maps for evaluating marshes area desertification. This study found that the marshes area is divided into two categories. The first category represented about 3.52%, covering a small area of 984 km<sup>2</sup> and classified as non-sensitive to desertification. While the second category represents about 96.48%, covers&nbsp;most of the study area and involves 27.005 km<sup>2</sup> and consider sensitive to desertification.</p> Ahmed F. Al-Yasiry Alaa M. Al-Lami Ali A. Al Maliki ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-05-26 2023-05-26 259 272 10.46717/igj.56.1E.20ms-2023-5-30 Calcareous Nannofossils biostratigraphy of Gulneri Formation in Sulaimaniya, Northestern Iraq <p>Investigations on the calcareous nannofossils of the Gulneri Formation are being done in the northern Iraqi of Dokan and Pushen areas, Sulimani, Northern Iraq. In this work, one biozone was established based on the results of a detailed examination used to identify fifty species of calcareous nannofossils; <em>Quadrum gartneri</em> Biozone (CC11) and <em>Lucianorhabdus</em> <em>maleformis</em> Biozone (CC12) in Dokan section, although in this study, three biozones were suggested; <em>Microrhabdulus decoratus </em>Biozone&nbsp; (CC10); <em>Quadrum gartneri</em> Biozone (CC11) and <em>Lucianorhabdus</em> <em>maleformis</em> Biozone (CC12) in Pushen section. According to correlations with other calcareous nannofossil biozones from local region we sagestion the Cenomanian to Turonian for Pushen section and Turonian for Dokan section.</p> Seham B. Al-Salmani Omar A. Al-Badrani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-05-26 2023-05-26 273 281 10.46717/igj.56.1E.21ms-2023-5-31