The Iraqi Geological Journal https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj <p>The <strong><em>Iraqi Geological Journal (IGJ)</em></strong> is a peer-reviewed and indexed journal, issued twice a year in English by the Union of Iraqi Geologists (UIG).&nbsp;</p> The Union of Iraqi Geologists en-US The Iraqi Geological Journal 2414-6064 Discrimination Reef and Non-Reef Environments, Using REE Geochemistry https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/1562 <p>This research aims to distinguish the reef environment from the non-reef environment. The Oligocene-Miocene-succussion in western Iraq was selected as a case study, represented by the reefal limestone facies of the Anah Formation (Late Oligocene) deposited in reef-back reef environments, dolomitic limestone of the Euphrates Formation (Early Miocene) deposited in open sea environments, and gypsiferous marly limestone of the Fatha Formation (Middle Miocene) deposited in a lagoonal environment. The content of the rare earth elements (REEs) (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er, Ho, Tm, Yb, Lu, and Y) in reef facies appear to be much lower than of those in the non-reef facies. The open sea facies have a low content of REEs due to being a transitional phase. The facies investigated have ƩREEs lower than the PAAS. The lagoonal facies shows an average ƩREEs higher than the Global Standard of Carbonate Rocks (GSCR), whereas reefal and open sea facies contain lower. The Y/Ho, Y/Dy, and Er/Nd were used as distinctive indicators of facies diagnosis; reefal facies have a high value of Y/Ho, Y/Dy, and Er/Nd as compared to PAAS are higher than1. In contrast, non-reef facies (lagoonal) have a lower value of &nbsp;Y/Ho, and Y/Dy as compared to PAAS is lower than 1, but Er/Nd is higher than 1. While in open sea facies, the Y/Ho and Y/Dy have moderate values as compared to PAAS are close to 1, but a high value of &nbsp;Er/Nd&nbsp;as compared to PAAS higher than 1.&nbsp;</p> Farah H. Turki Salih M. Awadh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 1 11 10.46717/igj.56.1A.1ms-2023-1-13 The Relationship between Organic Matter and Soil Reflectance at Ramadi, Iraq https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/1155 <p>Soil characteristics change with certain stimuli, which change their reflectivity and therefore lose their characteristic properties. This research focuses on measuring the effect of organic matter on soil reflectivity, especially the lack of any standard soil reflectivity samples in the research area, and will be the first step in designing these diagrams. Pear leaf was selected, the leaves were taken, then buried at depths (40 cm and 100 cm) , and their reflectivity and surrounding soil were measured for a 6-months period. The results showed that the rate of reflectivity decreased by 26% during this period at a wavelength of 900nm with an increase in organic matter at a depth of 40cm, reflectivity decreased by 13% during this period at a wavelength of 900nm with increasing in the organic carbon in the depth of 100cm, and no clear effect of humidity on organic matter changes was observed. These results should be used in any future study of the area of research, and the difference in reflectivity&nbsp;should be calculated to prevent miscalculations in the future.</p> Eilaf H. Abbas Omar B. Al-Jarrah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 12 17 10.46717/igj.56.1A.2ms-2023-1-14 The Lower Silurian (Hot Shale) Source Rocks of Western Iraq: Depositional Model and Stratigraphic Distribution https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/1265 <p>The Hoseiba Member, an Early Silurian basal mature hot shale of the Akkas Formation (Silurian) consists of about 80% of the Paleozoic hydrocarbon potential system, it is organic-rich with total organic carbon up to 16% <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/shale-gas">as the main source for the </a>Paleozoic gas resources in Iraq. The hot shale is the main source of rocks that are penetrated in deep wells in the western Iraqi desert such as Akkas-1, Qaim-1, and Khleisia -1, which are distributed due to paleo uplift in the restricted regional basin in the west, south, and northwest Iraqi desert and wedged to north thrust zone in Ora area of extreme northern Iraq, Ora subbasin to Aljezira NW and in the west where the approved source rocks of ‘Hot shale” Akkas -Widyian subbasin (Rephrase). The Hoseiba Member, basal hot shale in the Akkas Formation in Iraq, and their correlative units are extended within neighboring countries Jordan, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Oman, and southern Turkey. Qualitative and quantity of Hot Shales source rocks Silurian are Excellent in Akkas well -1 (0.95-16.62%) TOC in Akk-1 Akkas sub-basin west Iraq and an average thickness (30 m.) with 1-9.94% TOC in Kh-1 Al-Jezira sub-basin NW Iraq. The hot shale distribution was controlled by the Caledonian uplift that created paleo-high in northern Iraq and moderately deep to the northwest, and deep depression deposition in west and south desert Iraq. The hot shale expulsion and migration of hydrocarbon are controlled by the underlying main reservoir of the Khabour Formation K1 sandstone ember&nbsp;by block faulting.</p> Doaa T. Fadhil Aboosh H. Al-Hadidy Adnan Q. Mahdi Mustafa A. Theyab ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 18 28 10.46717/igj.56.1A.3ms-2023-1-15 Validity of Limestone Aggregates for Using in Asphalt Concrete Mixtures for Surface Layer of Roads https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/1173 <p>In this paper, limestone quarries in the Bazian region, west of Sulaymaniyah city, northern Iraq, were evaluated geotechnically to examine their suitability for developing asphalt concrete for the top layer of roadways. Two samples were collected to perform geotechnical testing, including physical, chemical, and permanence tests. From the physical results, it is evident that the coarse and fine aggregate grain sizes demonstrated conformity to the American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM-C136 as well as the requirements of the fine aggregate standards ASTM-C117, which fall within the coarse, fine, and filler areas. Moreover, the findings revealed that the flat granules are 22% and the longitudinal granules are 35%. Based on these results, it did not go over the limits set by British standards, so it meets the requirements for concrete work. Another promising finding of durability tests was 21.8%, which represented the highest weight loss. This is an important finding in the understanding of the suitability of the aggregate to American and Iraqi standards in concrete work. A further novel finding of stability tests demonstrated the cement's suitability with Iraqi standards and the American standard C131-C535-2003. Finally, the results of Marshall's test for density, creep, and stability reveals the conformity with the Iraqi specification for asphalt concrete works D2726-05, where the density value was 2.292 and the percentages of creep and stability were 12.2 kN and 2.9 mm, respectively. The results of examining the cement asphalt were in accordance with the specifications required for concrete works, where the optimum percentage of asphalt for the design of the asphalt mixture for the surface layer was 4.8. Also, the percentage of airspace was 4.1 according to&nbsp;the American standard D2041.</p> Eman A. Awad Khaled A. Al-Haddad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 29 41 10.46717/igj.56.1A.4ms-2023-1-16 Validity of the Injana Claystones as Fillers Al-Hajaj, Northern Salah-Alddin, Iraq https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/1195 <p>This study aims to evaluate the suitability of the Injana Formation clays for filling material in the Al-Hajaj area, Salah Aal-Din. The exposed rocks are Injana formation, in addition to the Quaternary Deposit. four stations were studied to determine their suitability as materials for dams. Geotechnical properties show that the type of clay is low plasticity clay, and the chemical analyses show that the ratio of total dissolved salts ranges between 1.35-3.45 %, while the ratio of gypsum content ranges from 0.22-0.29. In the last, the geotechnical properties of Injana clays are accepted as filling materials for earth-fill dams when compare with National Center for Laboratories and Construction Sciences, 2003, Building Materials Specification, Sorb /R5. The aim of this study is to estimate the geotechnical properties of the clay rocks including petrophysical properties and Chemical properties and know the viability of clays for filling dams in the study area as filler material based on Iraq&nbsp;specification, 2003, Sorb/R5.</p> Munji H. Ali Mohammed R. Abood Ghazi A. Zarraq ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 42 49 10.46717/igj.56.1A.5ms-2023-1-17 Hydrochemical Characteristics and Quality Assessment of Surface Water in Sidakan-Balakyan River, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/1151 <p>The hydrochemical characteristics of surface water&nbsp;are studied to understand their source, type of water, and evolution. This study aims to determine the hydrochemical characteristics and controlling factors, by evaluating the water quality of the Sidakan-Balakyan River. The samples were collected along the Sidakan-Balakyan River to the junction point of the Sidakan-Rwanduz Rivers, for each sample, physical (pH, EC, Temperature, Turbidity, TDS and T.H) and chemical parameters (Mg<sup>2+</sup>, Ca<sup>2</sup><sup>+</sup>, K<sup>+</sup>, Na<sup>+</sup>, HCO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>, Cl<sup>-</sup>, SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2- </sup>and NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>) were analyzed. The results showed that all water samples were within the acceptable range. The results obtained from the Piper and Chadha diagram indicate that the studied water samples during High Flow Period is Mg- Bicarbonate type as well as Ca<sup>+2</sup> and SO<sub>4</sub><sup>-2</sup>, whereas during Low Flow Period in Sidakan river is Mg<sup>2+</sup>- Bicarbonate, But in Balakyan and Rwanduz rivers are Ca<sup>2+</sup>- Bicarbonate. Moreover, based on Gibbs Diagram, water samples were distributed in the rock weathering dominance section. Based on TDS and T.H. water samples were found to be moderately hard fresh water. Additionally, the river water can not be used for drinking directly. Most samples have a good to excellent water quality index except for some samples which are unsuitable during High Flow Period.</p> Shene H. Qader Awaz K. Rasul ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 50 66 10.46717/igj.56.1A.6ms-2023-1-18 Hydrochemical Investigation and Quality of Groundwater in Erbil-Pirmam Area, Kurdistan Region, Iraq https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/1289 <p>The chemical analysis of groundwater for any regions is very important for water resources and estimating the suitability of this important natural resource. Sixty-two groundwater samples were collected during two recharge periods in October 2021, which represent the minimum recharge period, and May 2022 which represent the maximum recharge period. The physical analysis includes electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature while the chemical analysis includes major cations and anions. A piper diagram was used to classify the groundwater water in the area to determine water type which all water samples are categorized as bicarbonate water type for both periods. To establish the appropriateness of groundwater as drinking water in the area, different standards were employed as standards of water use. All water samples in the study area are fresh water and of medium salinity water except one well which is high salinity water. The groundwater quality in the studied area is suitable for drinking because all parameters are under permissible limit except one well which have a high nitrate concentration. According to the Total Dissolved Solids, the water is acceptable for irrigation and does not cause harmful effects on crops except for two water samples that can be used and adversely affected crops that were susceptible to salt, and suitable according to SAR ratio and low sodium hazard. The aim of this study is to determine water quality and evaluate groundwater for different uses including drinking, agriculture, and&nbsp;irrigation purposes.</p> Sarween Esmael Shwan Seeyan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 67 85 10.46717/igj.56.1A.7ms-2023-1-19 Evaluation of the Performance of a Discharge Gauging Station on Tigris River in Baiji, Iraq https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/1219 <p>Gauging the discharge of the Tigris River in Baiji is very important, as it reflects the final accumulated flows from Mosul Dam, upper and lower Zab tributaries, which send downstream to the control system in Samarra. The current study aimed to evaluate the performance of the Baiji gauging station for measuring water levels and discharge, and thus suggest alternative locations. Large disagreement was found between the manually measured discharge, and that measured by the Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler and in comparison with the discharge coming from the stations of Shirqat and Al-Dibs upstream Baiji, or those discharges sent to Tikrit downstream the station. A topographical survey of the flow section was done to determine the area using manual and Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler techniques for the original and alternative locations. Then flow velocity was measured, then the discharge was calculated according to the flow section area, and the average flow velocity for different levels, the stage-discharge equation was deduced and compared with the other equations used previously. The study concluded that the original station is inefficient, and it is better to move it to the second alternative site, by comparing the three stations, we found that the most accurate measurements were at the second alternative&nbsp;station.</p> Saif A. Olewi Sabbar A. Salih Faraj A. Sulaiman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 86 99 10.46717/igj.56.1A.8ms-2023-1-20 Tectonostratigraphic Framework and Depositional History Pattern of the Cretaceous Successions Period in Southern Iraq https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/1192 <p>Twenty oil wells were selected to study the tectonostratigraphic of the Cretaceous in southern Iraq, in order to develop a comprehensive description of the petroleum system in the region. That was conducted through an interpretation of the technical reports and the available information on the wells, which include sedimentary, stratigraphy, tectonic reports, and oil reservoir studies of the Cretaceous. Stratigraphically, a third-order cycle was identified in the Cretaceous succession in southern Iraq, which also comprises seven and a half cycles of the fourth order. Eight genetic stratigraphic sequences were also identified, as well as eight maximum flooding surfaces. The concept of the tectonostratigraphic boundary (TSB) and the tectonostratigraphic unit (TSU) have been adapted in this study. In the present study, the Cretaceous period in southern Iraq considers one tectonostratigraphic system (TSS) consisting of four main tectonostratigraphic categories. Each category consists of a set or group of secondary tectonostratigraphic units; these are TSU1A, TSU1B, TSU1C, TSU1D-TSU2A, TSU2B-TSU3A, TSU3B, TSU3C-TSU4A, TSU4B, and TSU4. These units are separated by five tectonostratigraphic boundaries presented from TSB1 to TSB5 by Sulaiy, Shuaiba, Mauddud, Khasib, the lower part of Tanuma, and Shiranish. The lateral extensions of the TSUs that are close to the passive margin (northeast part of the study area) are hydrocarbon reservoirs. The lateral extensions TSUs that are far from the passive margin (southwest part of the study area) are hydrocarbon generator sources. The intermediate unit is characterized as both a generator source and reservoir hydrocarbon. Vertically, the TSUs are characterized by improved reservoir properties with reduced depth due to the lack of compressional tectonic force, which leads to forming a good primary porosity. The transfer from north to south of the study area represents a trend of improvement in reservoir characteristics for the same reason as mentioned previously. Finally, the TSB represents a&nbsp;source generator hydrocarbon more than a reservoir.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Rafed Al-Muhamed Mazin Al Shaoosh Nagham Adal Al Hawi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 100 126 10.46717/igj.56.1A.9ms-2023-1-21 Metamorphic Evolution of the Garnet Amphibolite Schist from Mawat Ophiolite, Kurdistan Region, Northeast Iraq: Geochemistry, Mineral Chemistry and Thermodynamic Approach https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/1277 <p>The garnet amphibolite schist is associated with the gabbroic unit of the Mawat ophiolite, Kurdistan region, Northeast Iraq, in the imbricated zone of the Zagros orogenic belt. &nbsp;Field observation, petrographic study, mineral chemistry, geochemical data, and thermodynamic modeling were used to demonstrate mineral identification, predict the observed stable mineral assemblages, and validate the protolith. The mineral assemblages of prograde are garnet (pyrope-almandine, chlorite (clinochlore), amphibole (grunerite), plagioclase (anorthite), iron oxides while the garnet (almandine-pyrope), chlorite (chamosite), amphibole (cummingtonite), and iron oxide represent retrograde assemblage.&nbsp; The relict pod of metagabbro in the center of the garnet amphibolite schist body consists mainly of plagioclase, amphibole, pyroxene, and iron oxide. Geochemical data reveals that the rock is depleted in SiO<sub>2</sub> and CaO and enriched in refractory elements compared to the metagabbro. This may be attributed to the generation of silicic melts by partial melting and producing nearby plagiogranite. The rare earth elements (REE) patterns show that the garnet amphibolite schist is depleted in light rare earth elements (LREE) and gradually enriched in heavy rare earth elements (HREE). Thermodynamic modeling, field observation, combined with petrographic study constrains two metamorphic stages and one possible anticlockwise P-T-t path for garnet amphibolite schist, with increasing pressure and temperature of gabbroic rocks units of Mawat ophiolite. The rocks reached peak metamorphic conditions at more than 800 °C and 8–10 kbar, which partially melted the rock produced prograde resitite and melt. Later, the resitite rock retrograded to the lower stage at temperatures ranging from 620 to 650 °C and pressures ranging from 6.5 to 6.8 kbar. Anticlockwise P-T-t paths suggested based on geochemical and thermodynamic data for garnet amphibolite schist of the Mawat ophiolite. Moreover, the gabbro is considered to be the protolith of garnet amphibolite schist, which have been undergone eclogite facies metamorphism later&nbsp;overprinted by amphibolite facies.</p> Danar H. Omer Yousif O. Mohammad Irfan O. Yara ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 127 148 10.46717/igj.56.1A.10ms-2023-1-22 Estimation of Coda Q Wave Attenuation Factors for Northern Iraq https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/1308 <p>The coda wave decay method was used to estimate the quality factor from the coda wave amplitude decay rate for the broadband seismic stations in northern Iraq using a single back-scattering model. The study aims to calculate the attenuation factor to comprehend the details of the structure of the earth's crust in the study area. The study was conducted using data from the Mesopotamian Network and the Iraqi Meteorological Organization and Seismology &nbsp;from 2007 to 2021. The selected earthquakes have magnitudes ranging from 4 to 6.1 ML and epicentral distances of less than &lt; 100 km. Seventy seven earthquakes were recorded by three stations (SLY1, DHK1, and IKRK). These earthquakes were analyzed at eight center frequencies (1, 2, 3.5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 16 Hz) and a 30-sec length window by using the Seisan package. The Qc values are computed by the frequency-dependent relationship Q<sub>C</sub>= Q<sub>0</sub> <em>f</em> <sup>α</sup>, where Q<sub>0</sub> is Q<sub>C</sub> at 1 Hz and α denotes the degree of frequency dependence. The attenuation relationship of station SLY1 is obtained as Q<sub>C</sub> =88 <em>f </em><sup>1.02</sup>, Q<sub>C </sub>= 90 <em>f</em> <sup>0.97</sup> in the DHK1 station, and Q<sub>C </sub>= 91 <em>f</em> <sup>1.04</sup> in the IKRK station. The comparison of these three stations indicates that&nbsp;attenuation is highest in Sulaymaniyah, followed by Duhok, and then Kirkuk.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Fatima K. Khagoory Ali M. Al-Rahim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 149 160 10.46717/igj.56.1A.11ms-2023-1-23 Effect Dynamic Stability of Atmospheric Boundary Layer on Plume Downward Flux Emitted from Daura Refinery Stacks https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/1109 <p>The vertical motion of air that enhances or restricts the atmospheric turbulence through the atmospheric boundary layer is known as "atmospheric stability", in which any movement of atmospheric components such as water vapor, aerosols, etc. are affected by the atmospheric stability. The aim of this research is to test the effect of atmospheric boundary layer stability on the amount of downward aerosols flux at 10um (PM<sub>10</sub>) emission from stacks of Daura refinery, and estimate of deposition dust aerosols PM<sub>10</sub> amount in the area around the Daura refinery. In this study, hourly atmospheric stability based on a similar theory of Monin-Obukhov length is calculated from archived data of the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast, and deposition velocity (V<sub>d</sub>) for PM<sub>10</sub> that is emitted from stacks Daura Refinery is calculated using the stability parameter (L). PM<sub>10 </sub>concentration is estimated according to the Gaussian model, which is used along with deposition velocity at this particular size in order to produce downward sedimentation flux (F<sub>p</sub>) at distances 1000, 5000, and 10000 m from stack point sources emission. Results show that areas located to the south and southeast of the refinery receive large amounts of deposited flux values through stable weather conditions, where the accumulated PM<sub>10</sub> amounts during one month have recorded at 1.5 million μg /m<sup>2</sup>.s in January at a distance of 1000 m from refinery center stacks, while this amount reaches 532 million μg/m<sup>2</sup>.s during July due to the high emission rates resulting from burning fuel oil during July. The percentages of PM<sub>10 </sub>sedimentation decreased with the distance from the refinery to 1712 and 322839 μg /m<sup>2</sup>.s at a distance of 10 km from the refinery in January and July, respectively. According to this method, the accumulated amount of PM<sub>10</sub> in square meters can be estimated&nbsp;at any time, if atmospheric stability conditions and the domain of wind direction are known.&nbsp;</p> Ahmed F. Hassoon Sama K. Al-Dabbagh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 161 171 10.46717/igj.56.1A.12ms-2023-1-24 3D Geological Modeling Using Seismic Data for Yamama Formation between Nasiriya and Gharaf Oilfields in Dhi Qar, Southern Iraq https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/1368 <p>&nbsp;This research addresses the construction of a 3D geological model for the Yamama Formation in the Dhi Qar Governorate, southern Iraq. Since the formation is economical due to its deposition period, which represents about 80% of the Iraqi oil reservoirs, and since no study was carried out in this area, this study was performed to explore the reservoir properties using Petrel software. Seismic data, well logs, and previous studies were used. As a result, the structure depth map was established and showed that there are two structure noses at the top of the Yamama Formation. Consequently, the Yamama reservoir is divided into three productive reservoir units named Ya, Yb, and Yc units. The study indicated that the Yc reservoir unit is the best because of its reservoir properties, where the ratio of water saturation is ranged between 37-40 %, the porosity ratio is between 20 and 27 %, and the facies consist of wackestone, packstone, and grainstone. As a result, the YC unit is considered one of the most promising hydrocarbon reservoirs.</p> Ahmed S. Abdullah Hussein H. Karim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 172 182 10.46717/igj.56.1A.13ms-2023-1-25 Joint Analysis of InSAR, ERT, and in-Situ Geological Survey in Landslide Prone Area: A Case in Laeya Village, North Buton Regency, Indonesia https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/1251 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td width="519"> <p>Landslide investigation in Laeya Village of North Buton Regency, Indonesia, is necessary since this area is frequently experiencing landslides. In this study, we applied a joint analysis of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), and in-situ geology observation. The objectives of this multidisciplinary study are: a) to estimate ground deformation through the InSAR method, b) estimation of subsurface characteristics based on the electrical resistivity of rocks, as well as estimation of the shape of the slip plane and the type of landslide resulted, and c) to identify surface geology conditions of the site from an in-situ geology survey. The InSAR data of the Sentinel-1A acquired from 2015 to 2017 were processed using the Sentinel toolbox. The resistivity data collected utilizing the electrodes array of the Wenner-Schlumberger configuration were processed employing the RES2DINV. The in-situ geology survey involving the observation of elevation, slope, and soil and rock type was also carried out in the landslide area. The InSAR method may estimate the deformation of slope material of the investigated sites with a magnitude ranging from -53 mm to +55 mm. The negative mark of the magnitude means that the ground deformation is ground subsidence and the positive means ground uplift. The ERT method has successfully estimated the existence of the saturated zones, the clay layer that acts as a slip plane, and the slip surface type. There are at least two types of slip planes estimated, namely the planar and uneven curvature slip planes that generate the translational and the complex landslides, respectively. In-situ observations of geological conditions support the results obtained from the InSAR and ERT methods.&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Jamhir Safani Golok Jaya Fitra Saleh Ali Okto Suryawan Afsar Jahidin Lania ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 183 195 10.46717/igj.56.1A.14ms-2023-1-26 Larger Foraminifera of Middle and Late Cenomanian (Biostrome Association), Southern Iraq https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/1273 <p>Searching one of the most important reservoirs of the Cretaceous in Iraq is the aim of many researchers. The studied sequences are in the Mishrif Formation in southern Iraq. The goal is to define fauna and design biostratigraphic zoning. Forty genus and species were identified as associated with the most capable reservoir facies (the biostrome). Identification of biostrome facies mainly was in the Late Cenomanian part of the studying sequences. Suggested biozones are based on eight biomarkers, two of which appear and disappear together, leading to four interval biozones. They are; (1) Nezzazata simplex and <em>Nezzazata</em> <em>conica</em> concurrent biozone delineating the Middle Cenomanian age. (2) Praealveoilina cretacea and <em>Pseudorhapydionian </em>concurrent biozone. (3) <em>Praealveolina tenuis</em> and <em>Cisalveolina lehneri</em> concurrent biozone. (4) Chrysalidina gradate and <em>Pseudolituonella reicheli</em> concurrent biozone delineating the Late&nbsp;Cenomanian.</p> Abdelwahhab A. Al-Salihi Yasamin Kh. Ibrahim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-26 2023-01-26 196 207 10.46717/igj.56.1A.15ms-2023-1-27 Detection of Soil Contamination Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Induced Polarization Methods By Tank Model https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/1128 <p>Resistivity and induced polarization surveying were originally developed for mineral exploration but are now the of outcome new applications in the field of environmental and engineering geophysics. This paper describes an experimental setup used to carry out resistivity tomography and induced polarization tests (in the time domain) that are used in geological and geophysical surveys to characterize soil and rock. The test setup is carried out in the laboratory via the Tank model developed for this purpose. The paper describes a laboratory system used to study the influence of different contaminants in a small-scale soil stratum using two geophysical methods and describes how the behaviors of resistivity and chargeability result in contaminated and uncontaminated soils. The results of a geophysical survey were performed to identify a contaminator in the Tank model. Both techniques provided evidence of contamination. In general, the electrical resistivity method was better than the induced polarization method in providing distinct values for most kinds of contamination, Except for the contamination with salt water, both methods gave significant&nbsp;results.</p> Zainab M. Shanshal Auday Y. Al-Mashhadany ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-26 2023-01-26 208 220 10.46717/igj.56.1A.16ms-2023-1-28 Reservoir Characterization and Rock Typing of Carbonate Reservoir in the Southeast of Iraq https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/1377 <p>Flow unit and reservoir rock type identification in carbonates are difficult due to the intricacy of pore networks caused by facies changes and diagenetic processes. On the other hand, these classifications of rock type are necessary for understanding a reservoir and predicting its production performance in the face of any activity. The current study focuses on rock type and flow unit classification for the Mishrif reservoir in Iraq's southeast and the study is based on data from five wells that penetrate it. Integration of several methods was used to determine the flow unit based on well-log interpretation and petrophysical properties. Flow units (FUs) were identified using the Quality Index of Rock and the Indicator of the Flow Zone. The Winland correlation was used to determine the pore throat size. The Lucia classification was based on fabric rock number, and cluster analysis detects rock types using well log data within the Mishrif Formation. Four rock types have been specified by the combination of these approaches Grainstone-Packstone, Packstone-Wackestone,&nbsp;Wackestone-Mudstone and Mudstone.</p> Ohood Salman Omar Al-Fatlawi Sameer Al-Jawad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-26 2023-01-26 221 237 10.46717/igj.56.1A.17ms-2023-1-29 Geological Model for Jeribe/Euphrates Formation, Tertiary Reservoir in Qaiyarah Oil Field, North of Iraq https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/1264 <p>Visualizing the subsurface geology and modelling it have been considered one of the major foundations in developing any field and make a reliable reservoir model to forecast the future production from the field. Where it is mainly considering as the framework of the required structure to provide distribution of the Petrophysical properties. The geological model helps to understand the behavior of the fluid flow in the porous media that effected by the heterogeneity of the reservoir and it will help to calculate the initial oil in place as well as to select new well location with accuracy while applying reservoir management. In this study, a geological model is built for Qaiyarah heavy oil field, tertiary reservoir, Jeribe, Dhiban and Euphrates formations relying on the well data from 48 wells including the location of wells, well tops and contour map. The structural model is constructed for the tertiary reservoir in Qaiyarah field which is an asymmetrical anticline consist of two domes separated by a saddle, the south – east dome is considerably wide and the north – west dome is considerably small and tighter. The south – east dome is structurally higher than the north – west dome by 45 meter at the upper limit of Jeribe Formation. The three formation in the tertiary reservoir is composed to limestone and dolomitic lime stone with very thin shale rims introduced only in Dhiban formation which have the minimum thickness compare to the main other two formations those considered the main reservoir units. Upscaling from the software have been used to distribute and correlate between the log and core data which came very acceptable to be used for the distribution to the entire field. Both log analysis and core data have showed that the reservoir is clean formation, no volume of shale has considered in the STIIOP calculations.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Herish Bibani Ayad A.Alhaleem ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-26 2023-01-26 238 252 10.46717/igj.56.1A.18ms-2023-1-30 2D Resistivity Technique in Exploring Soil Contamination Zones, Kwashe Area, Duhok, North of Iraq https://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/1154 <p>The impacts of leachate on the soil count as one of the main environmental issues, especially near waste dump areas. The Kwashe dumpsite is located in the Semel district, west of Duhok City. Different types of waste had accumulated from medical, construction, and household materials without any barrier or control of the contamination. Wastewater flows on the surface and percolates downward all over the area. Geophysical methods provide high-resolution data to investigate subsurface environmental conditions with no disturbance in the materials. In this study, the 2D resistivity technique by Ohm-Mapper device (G-858G) with a dipole-dipole arrangement was utilized along six resistivity profiles. the system uses one Transmitter to couple an active current signal to the ground and the voltage difference is recorded by one Receiver with separation distances of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 15.0 m. The resistivity data from MagMapper software was transferred to Res2dinvx32 software to create an inversion model for the subsurface. The results showed two main parts: The upper part consists of soil material mixed with recent deposits and fill materials formed of alluvium deposits with resistivity values of 15-50 Ohm.m at a depth between 0.25-3.0 m. The bottom section represents the leachate of bowl-shaped anomalies of very low resistivity values of less than 1.0 Ohm.m at various depths. The type of materials in the left and right edges of each of the models represent the&nbsp;main weak zone for leachate infiltration.</p> Kaheen D. Bamerni Rashied J. Mohammad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-26 2023-01-26 253 264 10.46717/igj.56.1A.19ms-2023-1-31