Assessment of the Contamination of Baghdad Soils with Lead Element


  • Mena Amer Fadhel Department of Geology, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Firas Mudhafar Abdulhussein Department of Geology, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq



Lead; Contamination; Spatial distribution; soil; Baghdad


The present study aims to study the content and spatial distribution of lead (Pb) contamination in the soils of some Baghdad cities (Middle of Iraq). Twenty soil samples were randomly collected from different land-use in the studied area at a depth between 5 to 30 cm. Ten samples are collected from Al-Rissafa side areas (Adhamiya, Al-Wazeeria (Battery Manufacturer), Shikh Omer, Ziyouna, Karada, Shaab, Sadr city, Al-Za’franiya, Al-Dora expressway, and Alselikh ) and other ten samples are collected from Al-Krakh side areas Al-Dora, Al-Masafi junction, Al-Dora, Sayidia, Al-Salam university college, Al-Bayaa (Industrial District), Jehad, Amirya, Abu Ghraib, Al-hurriya, and Kadhimiya. The soil samples have been analyzed for the lead (Pb) with the utilization of the X-Ray Fluorescence Based on the results, there is a notable difference in the concentration of Pb compared with the national and international permissible limits. The mean concentrations of Pb are 19507.5, 12.8, 2.2 mg/kg for industrial, roadside, and agricultural respectively and <1 for commercial, residential, and waste dumping sites. The high Pb concentration in the soils has been related to anthropogenic activities. Further, the spatial analysis map showed the high concentration of Pb distribution in the Al-Rissafa side of Baghdad city. The geoaccumulation factor and contamination factor indicate that all the soil samples are uncontaminated except the industrial sites are very high contamination with Pb. Also, by calculating the potential ecological risk, It has been found there is a very high ecological risk in the industrial sites, while a low ecological risk in other sites in the study area. The results showed that the average concentration of Pb in soil was greater than the global soil average.




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