Environmental Geochemistry and Bioavailability and Health Effects of Chromium in Topsoil and Cauliflower Plant in Kirkuk, Northern Iraq

  • Jaafar O.S. Al-Faili Department of Applied Geology, College of Science, University of Kirkuk, Iraq
  • Hassan A.A. Al-Jumaily Department of Applied Geology, College of Science, University of Kirkuk, Iraq
Keywords: Chromium, Size fraction, Bioaccumulation, Contamination Index, Health risk Assessment, Kirkuk

Abstract

The content of chromium in the surface soil as well as its content in cauliflower plants in Kirkuk was studied to investigate the environmental geochemistry of this element. 30 samples of surface soil were collected from inside the study area at a depth of 0-20 cm. Eight samples of cauliflower were collected from the same study area, soil and plant sampling sites were determined using a GPS device. Using ICP-MS technology we were able to analyze these samples. The results of ICP-MS showed that the average concentration of chromium in the soil samples was 78.59 mg/kg and its highest concentration was in the sample A12 (93.4 mg/kg), the increase in the concentration of chromium in the soil is due to agricultural fertilizers, irrigation with sewage water, the impact of traffic, commercial activities and industrial workshop. The mean of its concentration cauliflower samples was 3.81 mg/kg, and the highest concentration was 4.7 mg/kg in sample AQ10, the increase in the concentration of chromium in the plant is due to pollution in the soil, and the difference in these concentrations is due to the location of the sample and the properties of the soil. The plant absorbs it through the roots, then the stems, leaves, and fruits. Bioaccumulation factor value for chromium ranged with an average of 0.047 for all cauliflower samples. CF soil samples that the surface soil for this area is within a level (low pollution, CF <1) indicating the presence of pollution at a very low level, and the potential ecological risk index PRI found that all surface soil samples in the study area have (low-risk level, PLI≤50), and Igeo indicates that there is no pollution (practically uncontaminated, Igeo ≤ 0). It was found that the value of THQnc for both groups of adults and children in the study area was greater than 1.  The CRcancer values for both groups were greater than 1*10-4

Published
2022-05-23