Sequence Stratigraphy of the Fatha Formation in Shaqlawa Area, Northern Iraq


  • Hamid A.A. Alsultan Department of Applied Geology, College of Science, University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq
  • Karrar Hassooni Awad Directorate General of Education in Babylon Province, Babylon, Iraq



Fatha Formation, Sequence stratigraphy, Middle Miocene, Microfacies, Northern Iraq


A surface section of the Fatha Formation (Middle Miocene) was studied in the Shaqlawa area, Erbil, Northern Iraq. It consists of siliciclastic silt, evaporates, and carbonates in a mixed siliciclastic silt composition. The Fatha Formation in the study area can be divided into two members of variable thickness based on rocky differences. Depositional settings ranged from shallow open-marine and restricted-hypersaline to supratidal and continental (sabkha, fluvio-deltaic, and exposure). It is bounded below by a type one sequence boundary above the Eocene Pila Spi Formation and marked by conglomerates. The upper sequence boundary with the Injana Formation is conformable. Thirteen sedimentary facies were distinguished in the Fatha Formation within the Shaqlawa region of northern Iraq and include sandstone to mudstone, wavy bedded sandstone to mudstone, Flaser bedded sandstone to mudstone, Marl, sandstone, cross lamination sandstone, Trough cross bedded sandstone, Planar cross bedded sandstone, marly limestone lithofacies, bioclastic grainstone to packstone microfacies, bioclastic lime mudstone to wackestone microfacies, lime mudstone-wackestone microfacies, and gypsum lithofacies. The depositional environment of the formation was inferred based on the facies association concepts. The succession formation can be divided into several third-order cycles, which reflect fluctuations in the relative sea-level rise. High-frequency cycles of transgressive System Tract and Highstand System tract. Fundamental to the evolution of the sequence, in this case, is the local tectonic component.