Topographic Survey with Disto x and 3D Representation of the Caves by Laser Grammetry, Case of the AZIZA Cave, Errachidia, Morocco

  • Hicham Benani Department of Geology, Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed V University, Rabat, Morocco; Moroccan Explorers Society, Casablanca, Morocco
  • Lalla Mina Ouzzaouit Department of Geology, Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed V University, Rabat, Morocco; Moroccan Explorers Society, Casablanca, Morocco
  • Larbi Boudad Department of Geology, Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed V University, Rabat, Morocco; Moroccan Explorers Society, Casablanca, Morocco
  • Hassan Rhinane Department of Geology, Faculty of Sciences, Hassan II University, Casablanca, Morocco
  • Ayoub Nehili Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences, Sultan Moulay Slimane University, Beni Mellal, Morocco: Moroccan Explorers Society, Casablanca, Morocco
  • Yahya El Khalki Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences, Sultan Moulay Slimane University, Beni Mellal, Morocco
  • Nadia Slimani Topographic study office SITOPO, Marrakech, Morocco
Keywords: Lasergrammetry, Topographies, Photogrammetry, 3D modeling, Caving metrie

Abstract

From the middle of the 19th century, speleological topography became a discipline, if not an art, which supported the work of both explorers and scientists. Underground explorations in Morocco remain an area to be discovered and to be developed, the limestone surface of Morocco which is 99,890 km², represents 14% of the total surface which potentially contains a large number of caves, only 3 developed caves.

This under-exploitation is explained by the lack of evaluation of the richness of the karst and cave heritage of Morocco, the topographic maps of Moroccan caves are poorly carried out or absent, the last inventory of Moroccan caves dates from 1981.

The objective of this study is to represent the AZIZA cave virtually, to appreciate its volume, and to optimize the topography of the latter based on 3D technologies.

Two methods were used, the Topography of the cave by a DISTO-X, the results of the 3D projection of the cave were carried out on the software VISUAL TOPO.

Secondly, we carried out 3D modeling by lasergrammetry using a TLS FARO FOCUS 70, to scan the main entrance, the main axes, and the large rooms of the AZIZA cave, the final rendering was provided by the scene software.

Lasergrammetry allowed us to have the possibilities of a virtual representation of the cave and also important details that conventional methods cannot give.

Because of this heritage dimension, conservation conditions are essential, also given the potential to be appreciated that the cave and its environment offer, which can constitute a typical example of the exploitation of karst heritage and its environment

 

Published
2022-04-23