Gravel Mining Activity Impact on Riverbed Erosion and Bridge Foundation Stability

  • Ayad Ali Faris Beg Department of Geography, College of Education, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Mohammed Bahjat Thamer Department of Geography, College of Education, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Alyaa Gatea Shiltagh Department of Geography, College of Education, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Ahmed H. Al-Sulttani Department of Environmental Planning, Faculty of Physical Planning, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq
Keywords: GIS, Remote sensing, River erosion, Geomorphic processes, Bridge stability

Abstract

Geomorphological processes pose a risk that deserves attention and planning to avoid that, especially in the section near to east of Tuz bridge. This section of the valley facing a dramatic increase in gravel excavation and sorting of aggregates, consequence led to a change in the pattern of river branches flow from an anabranching river to a single-channel river, which led to a concentration of river discharge during floods. On 9th December 2018, Tuz Bridge was failed due to a heavy rainstorm three days preceding the failure event. The current study aims to conduct a field survey of all the human activities in the study area to assess river changes from remote sensing data the amount of runoff and river peak discharge based on rainfall data using SCS-CN method. In this study, ArcGIS, ArcGIS Earth, Google Earth, and WMS software are incorporated in the data analysis. The revealed results indicate the severe modification of valley morphology and converting the river pattern to flow during flood within a single channel with flow speed exceeded the critical velocity to induce vertical erosion of gravel and sands under the foundations of the bridge and causing the displacement and settlement of the bridge. The study recommends the local administration prevent gravel mining from the river valley at the upstream area of the bridge

Published
2021-09-28