Heavy Minerals Study of Sandstone from the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene Mukdadiya Formation; Kirkuk, Iraq: Implications for Provenance



  • Abbas Rashid Ali Department of Applied Geology, College of Science, University of Kirkuk, Kirkuk, Iraq




Heavy mineral, Mukdadiya Formation, Sandstone, Provenance, Kirkuk


Mukdadiya Formation (Late Miocene-Pliocene) exposed in the northeastern limb of Baba anticline fold in Kirkuk structure. The selected section was located in the Shoraw area, northeastern Kirkuk city, Iraq. Twenty sandstone samples were collected to study heavy minerals. The study indicates that opaque and epidote group minerals forming the main heavy minerals, followed by amphibole, pyroxene, garnet, and chlorite. According to heavy minerals assemblage, the source rocks are interpreted to be composed essentially of sedimentary followed by igneous and metamorphic rocks and the high contents of unstable and metastable minerals confirm their direct derivation from the adjacent primary source. Ultra-stable and metastable heavy minerals relationship indicated that the sandstone of the Mukdadiya Formation is immature and moderate stability and showed that these minerals couldn't be transported for very long distances close to the source area and not represents polycyclic grain. MF-MT-GM Ternary diagram showed that the studied samples fall within the field of active continental margins which is characterized by a relatively high percentage of minerals (MF˃GM) derived from mafic magmatic rocks.