GEODIVERSITY AND ITS IMPORTANCE ON VERTEBRATE DIVERSITY NEAR RAZZAZA LAKE, MIDDLE OF IRAQ

  • Mohammad K. Mohammad Iraq Natural History Museum, University of Baghdad
  • Aqeel A. Al-Zubaidi Iraq Natural History Museum, University of Baghdad
Keywords: Iraq, Karbala, Razzaza lake, Geodiversity, Habitats, Vertebrate diversity

Abstract

The study area is located near Razazza Lake, southwest Karbala City, middle of Iraq. Data collections depended on field natural surveys. Geodiversity includes: rocks and minerals, land forms, type of soil and water resources. The main rock bed units are: sandstone, siltstone, mudstone, marl, limestone, dolostone, and gypsum. Landforms are: plateaus, dry wadis, hills, caves, sand sediments, lakes, marshes, ephemeral streams, Shithatha Plain, springs and sabkha. Types of soil are sandy on the plateau and near south part of Razaza Lake peach, while muddy and clayey soil near Shithatha and surrounding. Water resources are: Al-Majara canal, Al-Hassainiya canal, Karbala drainage canal, Razaza Lake, Shithatha springs and drilled wells, Ephemeral stream (Wadi Al-Ubaidh). Geodiversity is provides habitats and enhance biodiversity, therefore many habitats has been recognized, such as: Plateaus, Hills, Cliffs and Wadis, Sand sediments, Razaza Lake, marshes, Wadi Al-Ubaidh, Shithatha plain, Springs, sabkha. Vertebrate diversity in Razzaza Lake and adjacent areas belongs to five classes; Pisces, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves, and mammalian. It comprises 89 species including 78 genera, 57 families and 22 orders. It is found that structural units of habitats of the area have their own vertebrate faunas. Results showed that some species are common to all habitats mentioned here for example Merops superciliosus, Upupa epops ,Vulpes vulpes and Pipistrellus kuhlii; others seem to be utilize more than one habitat in the area for example Gambusia affinis, Canis aureus, Hyaena hyaenam Hystrix indicam Prinia gracilis, Phoenicopterus ruber, and Uromastyx microlepis. Few species were recorded from one type of habitat for example Diplometopon zarudnyim Stenodactylus affinis, Bubo bubo, Scincus scincus and Taphozous nudiventris magnus. Of the species recorded, some were found of special interest from the conservation point of view for example Stenodactylus affinis and Hypocolius ampelinus. A comparison between the statuses of present vertebrate biodiversity and three decades ago was provided emphasizing on the environmental changes happened to the Razzaza Lake and the adjacent areas with the shortage of water quantity and deterioration of its quality.

Published
2018-01-25
Section
Articles