Manufacturing Perforated and Ordinary Bricks Using Injana Claystone Exposed in The Middle of Iraq

Authors

  • Ali Mutlag Awad Department of Geology, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Salih Muhammad Awadh Department of Geology, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.46717/igj.54.1A.2Ms-2021-01-23

Keywords:

Perforated brick, Ordinary brick, Injana claystone, Grain size, Brick color

Abstract

This study aims to use claystone beds exposed in the Injana Formation (Late Miocene) at Karbala-Najaf plateau, middle of Iraq for the manufacturing of perforated and ordinary bricks. The claystone samples were assessed as an alternative material of the recent sediments, which are preferred to remain as agricultural land. The claystones are sandy mud composing of 29.1 - 39.1% clay, 37.2 - 54.8% silt and 14.1-26.8% sand. They consist of kaolinite, illite, chlorite, palygorskite, and montmorillonite with a lot of quartz, calcite, dolomite, gypsum and feldspar. Claystone samples were characterized by linear shrinkage 0.01 - 0.1%, volume shrinkage 0.1 - 0.9%, bulk density 1.2 - 2.11gm/cm3 (1.68 g / cm3 average), and the efflorescence is varied from low to nil. The claystones are accordingly considered as a suitable material for the manufacture of perforated and ordinary bricks in grades A and B based on Iraqi Standard specifications No. 25 (ISS, 1993).

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Published

2021-01-28

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