Characterization of Basalt for Conservation Use from Cultural Heritage Site of Umm El-Jimāl in Jordan


  • Wassef Al Sekhaneh Department of Conservation and Management of Cultural Resources, Faculty of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Yarmouk, Irbid, Jordan
  • Tayel El-Hasan Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Mutah, Al-Karak, Jordan



Umm el-Jimāl, Cultural Heritage, Basalt,, X-Ray Diffraction, Micro-X-ray Fluorescence


The present study is a multi-analytical approach to the characterization of several basalt stone samples, from Umm el-Jimāl Cultural Heritage site, northern Jordan, which represents ancient trade routes between Arabian Peninsula and Syria. In particular, Micro-X-ray Fluorescence Mapping as new in the mineralogy, X-ray Diffraction Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy are used for the determination of the petrological, geochemical, and mineralogical characteristics of the basalt used in this archeological site for conservation purposes. The results reveal that it belongs to the alkaline trachy-basalt to basanite-tephrite type. With predominant quartz, olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase (albite) as major elements, the vesicular texture is occupied with secondary minerals such as biotite, gypsum, and calcite.