Synthesis of Industrial Ceramic (Cordierite) from Iraqi Raw Materials Through Solid-State Sintering Method
This study uses Iraqi raw materials (Western Desert) which include: Urdhuma silica sand, Duekhla kaolinitic claystone, flint clay, porcelanite, and karst bauxite, alongside other materials (pure silica created as by-product of Qaim phosphate manufacturing processes.), amorphous silica (silica from rice husk ash), Mg (OH)2, and MgCO3. The raw materials have been crushed and milled into sizes smaller than 45µ except the silica sand and kaolin that have been miled into different sizes 20 and 45 µ. Twenty-seven mixtures of different proportions were prepared from the above-mentioned materials. Ninety-two disk samples were formed by semi-dry pressing using the pressing force of 1000 kg/cm2. Those test samples were dried and fired at the temperatures of 1100, 1200, and 1300 ̊°C with temperature rises 50 °C/h and the soaking time of 2 h. X-ray diffraction of those samples shows a difference in the mineral structure according to the firing temperature and the chemical composition of the mixtures. The samples containing the mixtures of 70% Kaolin, 5% pure silica (Qaim), and 25% Magnesite that were fried at the temperature of 1300 ̊°C entirely consist of Cordierite.