Water Quality Evaluation of Selected Springs in Qazania Area, Diala Governorate, East Iraq
Twenty-five spring water samples were collected from the study area and analyzed for major constituents’ concentrations Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl ̶, SO42 ̶, HCO3 ̶ and NO3 ̶. The parameters of H, TDS and EC were measured as well. The springs water is neutral to slightly alkaline, Piper’s diagram classification indicates that most samples are earth alkaline water with an increase portion of alkali with prevailing sulfate and chloride. A Dominant cation is sodium followed by calcium then magnesium, while sulfate is a dominant anion followed by chloride, bicarbonate then nitrate. The dominant water type is NaSO4 which represents 64% of all samples followed by NaCl type which represents 28% and CaSO4 type which represents 8% of all samples. According to Water Quality Index (WQI) classification, 24% of whole samples are excellent, 8% is good, 24% poor and 44% are unsuitable for human drinking. According to Richard diagram, 20% of all samples have been fallen in C2S1 class where they are good for irrigation, 68% of all samples have been fallen in C4S2 class where they are poor for irrigation and 8% of all samples have been fallen in C4S3 class where they are very poor for irrigation, therefore it is clear that the most springs samples are not suitable for irrigation purposes except for very salt-tolerant plants.