An Attempt to Image Um El-Adam Cavity Structure in the Karst Terrain at Hit Area, Western Iraq


  • Ali Mishaal Abed Department of Applied Geology, College of Science, University of Anbar, Iraq
  • Jassim M. Thabit Department of Geology, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Iraq
  • Firas H. Al-Menshed Studies and Investigations Department, General Commission for Groundwater, Iraq



3D resistivity imaging, Um El-Adam cavity, Karst, Dipole-dipole array, Western Iraq


Um El-Adam cavity is one of the well-known cavities inside gypsum rocks in the Hit region, western Iraq, where this was chosen as a case study to evaluate 3D resistivity imaging technique detection and imaging of this type of cavity in complicated lithology. 3D view fulfilled by collating four 2D resistivity-imaging lines. The 2D resistivity imaging survey was carried out by Dipole-Dipole array with (n) factor and electrode spacing (a) of 6 and 2m, respectively. Both conventional inversion methods obtained the 2D and 3D models: standard least-squares and robust constrain options. The two options were able to define clearly the cave, but the second was more accurate, the dimensions of the cave in the inverse model closer to the actual dimensions. Horizontal slices displayed the final 3D model to reveal a 3D resistivity distribution with depth. The effect of Um El-Adam cavity appears after 1.5 m on the model slices, which is represented by increasing resistivity contrast compared to surrounding sediments. At the seventh and eighth slices, it was found that the size of the cavity exceeded compared with the actual dimensions. The results of this study indicated the high potential of this method for the detection and delineation of subterranean caves.