Industrial Assessment for the Exposed Carbonate Rocks on Safeen Mountain Kurdistan Region of Iraq


  • Varoujan K. Sissakian Petroleum Engineering Department, Komar University of Science and Technology, Sulaimani, 46001, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • Ala Ghafour Department of Geology, University of Regina, Regina, Canada



Limestone; Industrial assessment; XRF; Cement industry; Paper industry


he Safeen Mountain is one of the main mountains in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region, it forms
one of the long anticlines trending NW – SE. The exposed formations on the top of the
mountain are Qamchuqa, Bekhme, and Shiranish, with carbonate rocks of different types
and thicknesses. Sampling took place in the exposed rocks on the top of the mountain where
a road crosses the mountain, and a total of 20 samples out of 84 m thickness of the outcrop
were collected. The distance between sampling intervals was depending on the lithological
variation of the bedrock and each sample was collected to represent the sampling interval.
The samples were subjected to XRF to indicate the main oxides percentages in each sample.
The acquired results from the XRF showed the studied rocks can be used for cement and
paper industries based on Iraqi Standards. They can also be considered using it in the sugar
industry after a slight modification as well as in the drug industry.




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