Empirical Relationship between Three Geotechnical Properties Obtained in Three Sites in Kerbala City, Iraq


  • Ammar J. Al-Khafaji Department of Petroleum Engineering– College of Engineering –University of Kerbala




Geophysical survey, Cross hole, Seismic survey, Karbala, Iraq


The material index (Im), concentration index (Ic ), and Coefficient of Lateral earth pressure at res (Ko ) are important geotechnical properties, which are determined in seismic cross holes depending on wave velocities. These three geotechnical properties were determined in three sites in Kerbala City, Iraq. These geotechnical properties are determined depending on the cross-hole survey achieved at Al-Abbas holy shrine, the pure water p, project, and the Al-Khiam hotel sites. From a comparison of the values of these properties in the three sites, three empirical relations were found between them, these are Im = - Ko, Ic = 4 – Ko, and Ic = 4 + Im. The author believed that these relations are useful in determining these properties. In this research, it was reached to find new equations or relationships through which these three properties can be calculated by calculating one of them, and then finding the values of the other properties in n short time, and with high accuracy. These new equations or relations I called  Al-Kafeel equations. Im, Ic, and Ko have been calculated for more than 2034 samples from the surface of the earth to up to 15 m. These parameters have been calculated for more than 2034 samples from the earth's surface and up to 15 m, which used seismic velocity values in calculating these properties by the international old equations. This paper used new equations which are called Al-Kafeel geotechnical equations. The results were compared using the two equations, and it was very successful, and the error rate was between 1%–2%. These simple equations or relations, Al-Kafeel Equations, have been reached and used for the first time since 2017 and have given excellent results in terms of time, and accuracy.