Morphological Evolution and Sedimentological Study of the Essaouira Bay and the Mouth of Oued Ksob, Essaouira, Morocco
The coastline of Essaouira is located on the Atlantic coast of Morocco. The Bay of this city is a large sandy system strongly marked by coastal and fluvial dynamics, which makes it a perfect example of sedimentology processes in a Bay area. using of satellite imagery allows us to determine the morphological evolution of the Essaouira Bay and the mouth of Oued Ksob. The results of the study show that the evolution of the coastline of the Essaouira Bay with areas of erosion and others in accumulation. The analysis of satellite images allows us to distinguish three very different sectors: the first is north of the estuary of Oued Ksob, this area receives most of the flood contributions of Oued Ksob, which helps to maintain its morpho-sedimentary balance. The second sector, which is composed of the estuary and the mouth of the Oued Ksob, is characterized by a hydrodynamic both fluvial and maritime. The third sector is located south of the estuary of Oued Ksob, which is not affected by the effect of the presence of the obstacle on the island of Mogador. The sedimentological study is carried out in four different areas, which are: the dunes, the mouth of Oued Ksob, which has undergone numerous recorded positions since the late 19th century, the area south of the estuary, and the area north of the mouth. Several analyses were carried out namely: granulometry, morphoscopy, calcimetry, and X-ray diffraction, which confirmed that the origin of the studied sediments is both continental and marine.