Investigation the Origins of Groundwater Salinity in Baghdad City by Using Environmental Isotopes and Hydrochemical Techniques


  • Jassim M. Alhalbaasi Department of Applied Geology , College of Science, University of Anbar
  • Abdulhameed A. Alhadaithy Department of Applied Geology , College of Science, University of Anbar
  • Kamal B. Al-Paruany Centre of Pollution treatment, ministry of science and technology, Iraq



Isotopes, Salinity, Baghdad city, Groundwater


The hydrochemical and isotopic techniques have become one of the most popular and successful methods for determining the hydrogeochemical features of groundwater in recent years. A total of 15 samples were collected during wet (March, 2021) and dry (August, 2021) seasons. An approach with major elements (Cl-, Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, and SO4 2=) and multi-isotope (2H, 18O) are used in this study to solve the geochemical variation of salinity in groundwater in Baghdad. The results of the analysis of groundwater samples in the study area showed that the major cations were Ca2+ and Na+, while the major anion was SO4, Cl, and HCO3. The Ca-SO4 and Ca-Na-Cl-SO4. hydrochemical facies are the dominant hydrochemical facies of groundwater on the Al-Karakh and Al-Russafa sides, respectively. Ca-HCO3 was found to be the dominant hydrochemical facies of the Tigris River. Human activities and geochemical processes may have caused differences in hydrochemical Facies. According to isotope analysis, the study area has multiple sources of salinity. This can be attributed to the effects of natural dissolution of the salt compounds, mixing with sewage, and industrial water sink. The results and data from this work can be used to research groundwater recharge and interaction, as well as to protect groundwater quality.