Contribution of Lasergrammetry, Photogrammetry and electrical tomography for the survey and 3D representation of Caves: Case of the Cave of Kef El Baroud, Province of Benslimane, Morocco


  • HICHAM BENANI Department of Geology, Mohammed V University, Faculty of Sciences Rabat, Morocco.
  • Lalla A. Ouzzaouit Department of Geology, Mohammed V University, Faculty of Sciences Rabat, Morocco
  • Ayoub Nehili Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences, Sultan Moulay Slimane University, Beni Mellal, Morocco
  • Larbi Boudad Department of Geology, Mohammed V University, Faculty of Sciences Rabat, Morocco.



Karst; Caves; Topography; Lasergrammetry; Photogrammetry; Tomography; Morocco


The modeling of caves is constantly evolving and the classic modeling tools are giving way to new techniques that are more precise and more practical, indeed scientists are increasingly using 3D modeling to improve the representations of caves, in this study we have used lasergrammetry and photogrammetry which occupy an increasing place in the 3D representation of caves. Their simplicity favors their use for recording and modeling the parietal morphology of caves and the detailed representation of the complexity of Endokarst.

As part of the geomorphological study of the Kef El Baroud Cave which is located in the province of Benslimane in Morocco, two modeling methods were carried out, it is a digital survey by lasergrammetry and by photogrammetry of the cave. and its parietal morphologies. The study was completed by a topographical survey with a DistoX rangefinder. The geophysical contribution of electrical tomography was also carried out. The 3D terrestrial laser scanning technique was performed by a LEICA RTC 345 scanner. These measurements made it possible to reconstruct the evolutionary stages of the paragenetic morphologies, and their relationships with the local geomorphology, and the structural elements. The field measurements were integrated into the morphometric analyzes of the digital models, which allowed a large number of observations. The surveys also made it possible to compare the results with those of the photogrammetry carried out by a reflex camera and a wide-angle lens with appropriate editing software. Lasergrammetry and its application have enabled us to precisely position within the point cloud all the details of the covered wall, and thus constitutes, alongside photogrammetry, an interesting means for the geomorphological study of the Caves. An electrical tomography study was coupled with the other measurements and made it possible not only to delimit the walls of the Cave according to the resistivity gradients but also to detect the very probable presence of fractured zones under the Cave which could constitute an aquifer.




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