Using Passing Trains as Seismic Sources for Refraction Microtremor Site Characterisation Surveys: Rugeley, Staffordshire, UK

Authors

  • Raad M. Eissa School of Geography, Geology, and Environment, Faculity of Natural Sciences, William Smith Building, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG, UK: College of Engineering, Civil Engineering Department, University of Kerbala, Kerbala. Iraq
  • Nigel Cassidy School of Geography, Geology, and Environment, Faculity of Natural Sciences, William Smith Building, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG, UK: School of Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
  • David Gunn British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG, UK
  • Ian Stimpson School of Geography, Geology, and Environment, Faculity of Natural Sciences, William Smith Building, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG, UK
  • Ben Dashwood British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG, UK
  • David Morgan British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG, UK
  • Jamie Pringle School of Geography, Geology, and Environment, Faculity of Natural Sciences, William Smith Building, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG, UK
  • Jonathan Lee British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG, UK

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.46717/igj.56.1B.13ms-2023-2-21

Keywords:

Traind-induced vibration, Rayleigh wave, Shear wave velocity, Site characterization

Abstract

Microtremor seismic surveys are routinely used to provide shear wave velocities that are converted to soil stiffness site profiles. In this paper, we look to assess the feasibility of using trains as seismic sources to characterize near-surface geology, define the optimum survey parameters to collect train-induced vibrations (i.e., array location and orientation to the railway) and find how the geology affects train-induced vibration characteristics. Three-component train-induced shear wave vibrations were recorded on short (44 m) and long (115 m) linear seismic arrays, both parallel and orthogonal to the nearby railway embankment, using standard seismic refraction recording equipment. The collected data were divided into short/long array size/orientation and seismic components for each survey configuration. 1D shear wave velocity-depth profiles were also generated for all data sets. Results showed that long linear arrays with vertical components, parallel to the railway embankment, were optimal with the greater depth ranges. The vertical component amplitude of train-induced vibrations was found to be affected by the site geology, increasing with the thickening of Quaternary deposits and having different magnitudes for trains traveling in different directions. Results also showed different apparent shear-wave velocities were obtained from different train groups and different seismic components. The passenger trains (i.e. Virgin Trains Pendolino and British Midland 319 series) generate Rayleigh waves at higher frequencies than the freight trains. 

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Published

2023-02-24