Validity of Euphrates River Terraces Deposits between Baghdad and Fallujah for Concrete Works


  • Laith H. Mohammed Ministry of Education, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Ghazi A. Zarraq Department of Applied Geology, College of Science, Tikrit University, Tikrit, Iraq
  • Imad K. Abdulzahra Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad, Iraq



Euphrates; River terraces; concrete; Aggregates; Materials; Soundness


Four sites for deposits between Baghdad and Fallujah were studied. The results showed that all sites conform to the limits of the American Standard Specifications ASTMC33-03 and British Standard Specifications for Building Materials. As for Sieve Analysis for the coarse aggregate, the results for the first and fourth sites correspond to the nominal size of 4.75-19mm, with a deviation at the particle size of 19mm in the second and third sites. The apparent specific weight values ranged between 2.72–2.75 g/cm3 for fine aggregate and between 2.63-2.64 g/cm3 for coarse aggregate. While the rate of absorption was 1.40-1.63% for fine aggregates and 0.60-1.26% for coarse aggregates. The percentage of fine materials ranged between 1.58-4.51% for fine aggregates and 0.79-1.71% for coarse aggregates. The percentage of clay blocks and friable materials was 2.31-12.09% for fine aggregates and 0.39-1.55% for coarse aggregates. The percentage of lightweight materials is between 0.30-0.58% for fine aggregates and 0.24-0.48% for coarse aggregates. The flatness ratio of coarse aggregates ranged between 11.9-13.4% and the elongation ratio between 16.3-20.7%. The percentage of Soundness ranged between 5.56-7.46% for fine aggregates and between 3.14-5.88% for coarse aggregates. The chemical results were within the limits of the standard specifications. One of the most essential recommendations of the current study is to wash the fine and coarse aggregates with water well before use in concrete works should be considered to get rid of impurities, harmful substances, and salts.