Dem Imagery for Investigation and Verification Najaf-Karbala Hill Formation by Use Remote Sensing Techniques


  • Fouad K. Mashee Remote Sensing Unit, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Muaid J. Rasheed Deparetment of Geology, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Ali K.M. Ali Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Abdulrahman B. Ali Deparetment of Remote sensing & Geographic Information System, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Iraq



STER Imagery, Digital Elevation Models (DEM) image, Remote Sensing Techniques;, GIS programs, Najaf-Karbala Hill


 The development of the techniques of remote sensing and the software used to deal with data packets or digital technologies, to control vast areas in describing and diagnosing the formologies of the earth, which have become necessary in studying natural phenomena on the earth, knowing the origin of the earth and the interaction of factors that affect it and predicting future changes through Monitor, analyze and compare. The purpose of the presented study was to investigate and verify on Hill of Najaf-Karbala location, by applying remote sensing techniques. To fulfill this goal in the search, applied Digital Elevation Models (DEM) images were used in the study. The generation of DEM images applied for a geographic database is important in many applications. ArcGIS V10.5 is used to achieve this study and analysis of the study area to verify the goal. It is one of the major processing included in elevation assignment systems, and the traditional approach is manually identifying the elevation of contours from existing topographic maps. It is the physical make-up of the land, including natural and manufactured physical features. Moreover, the DEM Image aid thought to verify and identify all features (series of hills, or small hills, knolls, Gullies, Spurs, and a gully is a small valley). Additionally, a spur is a sloping ridge jutting out from the side of a hill, and in some time in terrain, hillsides have been eroding to form a series of gullies separated by spurs. In this study, every bend in a contour either indicates gullies or spurs. In addition, it is crucial to be able to tell which gully or spur. Finally, The study verified that most regions of Najaf and Karbala lie on terrain formed  big hills.