The Iraqi Geological Journal <p>The <strong><em>Iraqi Geological Journal (IGJ)</em></strong> is a peer-reviewed and indexed journal, issued twice a year in English by the Union of Iraqi Geologists (UIG).&nbsp;</p> en-US (Sameer R. Ahmed) (Sameer R. Ahmed) Thu, 31 Dec 2020 09:49:08 +0000 OJS 60 THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON ENERGY-WATER SYSTEMS AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS <p><em>In order to develop a valued decision-support system for climate alteration policy and planning, recognizing the regionally-specific features of the climate change, energy-water nexus, and the history of the current and possible future climate, water and energy supply systems is necessary. This paper presents an integrated climate change, water/energy modeling platform which allows tailored climate alteration and water-energy assessments. This modeling platform is established and described in details based on particular regional circumstances. The modeling platform involves linking three different models, including the climate change model from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 under the most severe scenario (</em><em>Representative Concentration Pathways</em><em>, Water Evaluation, and Planning system and the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning system). This is to understand the impacts of climate variability (changes in temperature and precipitation) on water and electricity consumption in Zayandeh Rud River Basin (Central Iran) for the current (1971–2005) and future time period (2006–2040). Climate models have projected that the temperature will increase by 7 °C and precipitation will decrease by 44%, it is also proposed that electricity imports will rise during a severe dry scenario in the basin, while power generation will decrease around 8%.</em></p> Safieh Javadinejad, David Hannah Hannah, Stefan Krause Krause, Rebwar Dara, Forough Jafary, Mohsen Naseri ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 28 Dec 2020 14:53:38 +0000 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT ON THE EMISSIONS OF QUARRY SITE PROCESSING OF AL-NAWASER CEMENT FACTORY, NW YEMEN <p><strong><em>Al-Nawaser cement plant is processed to construct in Al-Mahweet, NW Yemen. The quarry area is composed of limestone of Amran Group as a main raw source for cement production, which is exposed in the high mountains beside the plant site. The chemical analysis of limestones shows 50.31% CaO content, with 0.71% MgO. No previous studies were published to discuss the environmental impact assessment in Al-Mahweet, in which Al-Nawaser cement plant is the first to construct in the area. This paper discusses the environmental impacts in the quarry and surrounding area assessing various pollution creates from emitted gases and dust, based on the guidelines of WHO and YEPA specifications. The paper discusses a mitigation plan for dust, gases emissions, and noises during the quarrying and trucking processes, to prevent and/or minimize the pollution impacts of CO, CO<sub>2</sub>, SOx, and NOx gases comes from the detonation of the raw materials, viechels and crushers with dust in the quarry site and surrounding area. This study deals with the expected pollution impacts in the quarry site created from blasting and extraction of the raw materials emitted gases and dust directly affect the villages, population, agriculture, surface and ground waters and biodiversity. Moreover, machines (shovels, primary crushers) and trucks operation add another impact source of emitted gases and noises.&nbsp; </em></strong></p> Abdulqader M. Al-Kharraz, Yassin R. Hassan, Saad Zaki Al-Mashakhi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 28 Dec 2020 14:57:11 +0000 PHYSICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF GROUNDWATER TABLE RISING IN AJDABIYA, NORTHEAST LIBYA <p><strong><em>The rising groundwater levels in Ajdabiya city have been considered one of the critical issues that the city suffered for years, where it is attributed to a lot of undesirable environmental and physical effects. Deterioration of infrastructure facilities led to health and economic consequences in different areas. The study aims to identify the causes of effects and feasible strategies to mitigate them. There are many causes that led to rising the groundwater level such as the leakage of domestic water pipeline and sewage network. It noted an absence of a rainwater drainage network and the adoption of only surface water for daily life usages. Furthermore, never ever the groundwater has been not exploited, which led to upward seepage more and more. Ten groundwater samples have been collected to conduct specific criteria which proved the mixing between the groundwater and sewage. Many projects can be adapted to maintain the groundwater upward seepage and manage the water supplies in the area using the conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water to optimize the water demand. The most important is avoiding all pollutants whether surface or/and subsurface by maintaining the sewage network and drainages. For a more comprehensive image, it is recommended to adopt geotechnical tools before suggesting the management plan</em></strong></p> Saleh A. Emhanna, Fathi Elkaseh, Hassan Douas, AbdulHamid Al-Hwaili ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 28 Dec 2020 15:00:32 +0000 EFFECT OF SINTERING AND CORDIERITE ADDITIVES ON THE PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MULLITE BASED CERAMICS PREPARED FROM IRAQI RAW MATERIALS <p><strong><em>Mullite and cordierite are produced in the laboratory from Iraqi raw materials, have been crushed individually to obtain dense ceramic bodies to a particle size smaller than 45µ. Five mixtures of cordierite and mullite have been prepared in which cordierite has been added to mullite with the percentages of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 %. &nbsp;One hundred and twenty disk samples have been prepared using the semi-dry pressing method, with the pressure of 1000kg/cm<sup>2</sup>. The samples were dried and fired at different temperatures of 1300, 1350, 1400, and 1450 <sup>o</sup>C, with a soaking time of 2h. Physical evaluation tests (volume shrinkage, water absorption, apparent porosity, and bulk density) in addition to mechanical evaluation tests (compressive strength) have been performed. Samples fired at 1400<sup> o</sup>C showed the best rates for the evaluation tests in general, in which the apparent porosity and water absorption for the samples were very low while the rates of density and compressive strength were high. The characteristics of samples fired at 1450<sup> o</sup>C were overall poor while samples containing 60 and 70 % cordierite were melted. The best samples in this investigation were proven to be the ones containing 30% cordierite and 70% mullite while samples made out of 40% cordierite and 60% mullite show good mechanical and physical characteristics. The best ideal sample was the one fired at 1400<sup> o</sup>C and contained 30% cordierite and 70% mullite.</em></strong></p> Mojahid Mohammed Najim, Ban Ayyoub Yousif ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 28 Dec 2020 15:04:28 +0000 ENGINEERING GEOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE ROCK SLOPE STABILITY ALONG THE PROPOSED LERABIRE ROAD IN THE MERGASUR CITY, KURDISTAN, IRAQ <p><strong><em>The study of slope stability along the proposed Lerabire road in the Mergasur town, in Erbil city, Kurdistan region of NE-Iraq is carried out. To evaluate the stability of slopes, twenty stations were selected along the mentioned road, two stations in the rock slopes of the Shiranish Formation, eleven stations in the Bekhme Formation, six stations in the Qamchuqa Formation, and one station in the Sarmord Formation. &nbsp;In this study, the stability of rock slopes has been evaluated by the Landslide Possibility Index system. The results of the Landslide Possibility Index category in the rock slopes along the proposed Lerabire road ranges from a very low to low for rock slopes in stations 1 and 2 (marl and marly limestone of the Shiranish Formation, Moderate for rock slopes in stations 3, 4 and 19 (limestone of the Bekhme Formation), High for rock slopes in the</em></strong> <strong><em>stations 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 (limestone of the Bekhme Formation), stations 12, 17 (limestone and marly limestone of the Qamchuqa Formation), station 20 (limestone of the Sarmord Formation and very high for rock slopes in the stations 13, 14, 15, 16 (limestone and marly limestone of the Qamchuqa Formation), station 18 (limestone of the Bekhme Formation). According to Landslide Possibility Index category, the hazard category is Low in station 1 in the Shiranish Formation, but in station 2, 3, 4 and 19 are Moderate, moreover, in the station 5, 11, 12, 17, 18 and 20 are high. The rock slope assessment indicated that the height of the slope face, slope angle, a high degree of weathering, and discontinuities spacing are the factors that increase the failure possibility. To prevent landslide the ditch method is used in the Shiranish Formation rock slopes, the reinforcement techniques are used in the Behkme Formation rock slopes and rock removal methods are used in Qamchuqa and Sarmord Formation rock slopes. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</em></strong></p> Rebaz Muhammed Qader, Soran Hassen Arab ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 28 Dec 2020 15:13:21 +0000 FORMATION EVALUATION FOR JERIBE FORMATION IN THE JARIA PIKA GAS FIELD <p><strong><em>The Jaria Pika Gas field is a domal anticlinal structure in the northeast of Iraq NW trending, about 3.6 km long and 1.9 km wide. The 55 m thick gas bearing Jeribe Formation is the main reservoir. This study intends to well log interpretation to determine the petrophysical properties of the Jeribe Formation in the Jaria Pika Gas Field. Total porosity, effect porosity, and secondary porosity have been calculated from neutron, density, and sonic logs. Porosity is fair to good in the Jeribe formation. From RHOB-NPHI and N/M cross plot, the Jeribe Formation is composed mainly of dolomite, limestone with nodules of anhydrite. The Fatha Formation contains considerable amounts of anhydrite layers, so it's represented the cap rocks for the Jeribe Reservoir which is recognized based on the reading of Gamma-ray log, Density log, Neutron log, and Sonic log. The Jaria Pika is considered as gas field as the Jeribe reservoir rocks are gas saturated ones.</em></strong></p> Salam Sameer Abdulrahman, Manal Shakir Alkubaisi, Ghazi Hassan Al-Shara'a ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 28 Dec 2020 15:15:56 +0000 HYDROCHEMICAL FACIES DESCRIPTION TO ASSESS THE WATER QUALITY OF HABBANIYA LAKE, IRAQ <p><strong><em>&nbsp; &nbsp;</em></strong><strong><em>The present study depicts the hydrochemical processes controlling the variance in the hydrochemical facies for </em></strong><strong><em>sixteen samples obtained from Habbaniya Lake.</em></strong> <strong><em>The water samples were analyzed for</em></strong> <strong><em>the major ions (cations and anions) data</em></strong> <strong><em>in mg/l,</em></strong> <strong><em>total dissolved solids in mg/l, pH unitless, electrical conductivity in μS/cm, and temperature in °C. Piper trilinear (three-line) diagram indicates</em></strong> <strong><em>the overall of samples belongs to class 1 </em></strong><strong><em>(</em></strong><strong><em>Ca<sup>2+</sup></em></strong><strong><em>, Mg<sup>2+</sup>, </em></strong><strong><em>Cl<sup>-</sup>, SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup></em></strong><strong><em>),</em></strong><strong><em> category I </em></strong><strong><em>(</em></strong><strong><em>SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup> </em></strong><strong><em>- </em></strong><strong><em>Cl<sup>-</sup></em></strong><strong><em> and </em></strong><strong><em>Ca<sup>2+</sup></em></strong><strong><em> - Mg<sup>2+</sup>),</em></strong><strong><em> and permanent</em></strong> <strong><em>total hardness (calcium chloride type).</em></strong><strong><em> The contribution </em></strong><strong><em>of cations </em></strong><strong><em>in the Habbaniya lake was almost the same percentage (no dominant cation), while the SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup> is the dominant ion of the surface water </em></strong><strong><em>in the Habbaniya lake.</em></strong><strong><em> The analytical values showed that overall the samples were </em></strong><strong><em>freshwater and low enrichment salts within the permissible limits of the</em></strong> <strong><em>World Health Organization </em></strong><strong><em>standards. </em></strong><strong><em>Irrigation parameters and water quality index were calculated for samples to assess water for agricultural and drinking uses for the inhabitants</em></strong><strong><em> of the study area.</em></strong> <strong><em>The basic exchange is the exchange of Na<sup>+</sup> and K<sup>+</sup> ions in water with Mg<sup>2+</sup> and Ca<sup>2+</sup> ions in materials which is exposed to weathering.</em></strong></p> Mahmood Hafedh Al-Kubaisi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 28 Dec 2020 15:18:19 +0000 APPLICATION OF STABLE ISOTOPES TO EVALUATE THE INTERACTION BETWEEN SURFACE WATER AND GROUNDWATER IN NORTH EAST OF DIYALA, IRAQ <p>It had been adopted two reliable techniques which are hydro-chemical and stable isotopes to study the interaction between groundwater and surface water in Wand dam northeastern of Diyala. Eighteen water samples were collected from Wand dam, piezometers, groundwater pumping wells, spring, accumulation basins, and irrigation water during two periods; June and November 2017. The concentrations of cations in Wand dam water order to Ca<sup>2+</sup>&gt; Na<sup>+</sup>&gt; Mg<sup>2+</sup>&gt; K<sup>+</sup>, SO<sub>4</sub>&gt; Cl<sup>-</sup>&gt; HCO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>. The concentrations of cations in the samples collected from groundwater, irrigation water, springs and accumulation basins order to Na&gt; Ca&gt; Mg<sup>2+</sup>&gt; K<sup>+</sup>, Ca<sup>2+</sup>&gt; Na<sup>+</sup>&gt; Mg<sup>2+</sup>&gt; K<sup>+</sup>, Na<sup>+</sup>&gt; Ca<sup>2+</sup>&gt; Mg<sup>2+</sup>&gt; K<sup>+</sup> and Ca<sup>2+</sup>&gt; Na<sup>+</sup>&gt; Mg<sup>2+</sup>&gt; K<sup>+ </sup>respectively and the anions concentrations have order Cl-&gt; SO<sub>4</sub>&gt; HCO<sub>3</sub>-, SO<sub>4</sub>-&gt; Cl-&gt; HCO<sub>3</sub>, Cl-&gt; SO<sub>4</sub>&gt; HCO<sub>3 </sub>and SO<sub>4</sub>-&gt; Cl-&gt; HCO<sub>3</sub>- in groundwater, irrigation water, springs and accumulation basins respectively. There are three groups of water types based on isotopic composition; group A which noted in the Wand dam water, the piezometers Nos. 3 and 4, accumulation basin No.7 and irrigation water. Versus standards Group A is enriched by deuterium and oxygen-18, which show the effect of evaporation. Group B is distinguished by isotopic composition enrichment in groundwater as well as piezometer No. 7 than other piezometers due to the difference of the wells depth. Group C shows that the water samples collected from accumulation basin No.1 and springs have enriched stable isotopes. There is a spatial and temporal variation of isotopic contents and hydro-chemical properties of water samples which could be due to different recharge sources, evaporation processes, and origin of the water. Based on concluded information, there is no evidence proving any interconnection between the water of Wand dam and other water resources, except piezometer No. 5 which could be because of the presence of the permeable bed.</p> Kamal Barazan Nada Alparuany, Ali R. Ajeena, Al-Kubaisi Q. Yassian, Ali H. Falih, Adwia Abd AlSalam, Ali Abass, Amer Abd, Eman Hameed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000