The Iraqi Geological Journal http://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj <p>The <strong><em>Iraqi Geological Journal (IGJ)</em></strong> is a peer-reviewed and indexed journal, issued twice a year in English by the Union of Iraqi Geologists (UIG).&nbsp;</p> The Union of Iraqi Geologists en-US The Iraqi Geological Journal 2414-6064 Seismic Stratigraphic Analysis and Hydrocarbon Potential of Miocene-Quaternary Deposits in the Western Nile Delta Basin http://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/678 <p>This study focuses on the subsurface Miocene-Pleistocene sedimentary sequence of the Western Delta of Deep-Sea field. Analysis of seismic, based on obtainable well data, and seismic data, allows us to divide the studied successions into two mega sequences: Pre and Post Messinian complexes resulting in transgressive-regressive sedimentation cycles of sea level during the evolution of the Miocene-Pleistocene subsurface sedimentary sequence. The Relative level of the sea was extremely falling in the time of the Messinian period, although it was largely rising at the time of the lower to Middle Pliocene. Pre-Messinian complex encompasses the Miocene strata, while the Post-Messinian complex consists of a thickness pattern of deposits in the time of Pliocene to Pleistocene and ended up with Holocene. The comprehensive study presented here divides these complexes into several orders of sea-level cycles. Pre and Post-Messinian complexes are consisting of several third-order cycles, which is called a depositional sequence, hence the thickness pattern starts from Sidi Salem Formation and ends up with Mit Ghamr Formation (Pleistocene). The interpreted anticline represents a characteristic overlap that can create an appropriate structural trap for hydrocarbons in the sandy intermission of the formations of the Western Deep-Sea Delta field such as Kafr El Sheik siliceous clastic. Besides, the recognized individual and various hidden routes, such as channel and sub-channel in the Pre-Messinian complex are approved for additional inspection to discover hydrocarbons.</p> Mahmoud Elsheikh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 1 12 10.46717/igj.54.2C.1Ms-2021-09-20 Exploiting Aeromagnetic and Gravity Data Interpretation to Delineate Massif Deposits of Rehamna Area (Western Meseta-Morocco) http://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/697 <p>The analysis of the magnetic signatures and gravity gradient values of the Rehamna Massif south of the Moroccan Western Meseta by using Geosoft Oasis Montaj 7.0.1 software, allowed us to detect several useful anomalies to be exploited and which are related to magmatic bodies and structural features within the study area. These data were analyzed by applying several techniques, including the horizontal gradient filters combined with the first vertical derivative. Subsurface structures; such as geological boundaries, faults, dykes and folds, were visualized as lineaments on geophysical maps, then results were compared with structural features provided by previous studies in the region. Thus, the Rehamna Massif structural map shows sets of linear features which may represent faults or boundaries of geological structures, which can be either faults or boundaries of geological structures, and they are mostly oriented in the directions: N-S, NNE-SSW, NE-SW, E-W with the predominance of the NNE-SSW to NE-SW directions. In addition, the super position of the minerals bearing beds or formations were distinguished from gravity and magnetic data processing results. Some of the recognized anomalies are related to the existence of precious metals which belong to the granitic bodies within the study area.</p> Kawtar Benyas Abdellatif Aarab Abdelmounim Qarbous Abdellah Lakhloufi Ahmed Manar Mounir Amar Assia Idrissi Mohamed Elmimouni ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 13 28 10.46717/igj.54.2C.2Ms-2021-09-21 Analyzing Gravity and Magnetic Data for the Detection of Deep-Seated Faults and Faults within the Sedimentary Cover Near Habbanieyah and Razzaza Lakes in the Middle of Iraq http://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/686 <p>This research deals with the processing and analyzing of magnetic and gravitational data for an area covering the region of Habbanieyah - Razzaza Lakes and its adjacent areas. The study includes data processing and mapping of the total gravity and magnetic anomalies for only the concerned region, then separating the residual anomalies by adopting the polynomial regression graphical method. The residual gravity anomaly reflects the variations of rock densities within the sedimentary cover. The horizontal gradient filter has been applied to the residual gravity anomaly in order to conduct the locations of fault planes within the sedimentary cover where sudden variations of gravity field take place. The quantitative interpretation for both gravity and magnetic anomalies yielded a preliminary determination for the depth to the center of major faults within the sedimentary cover. By constructing a gravity model along a profile which directed NE-SW and passing through the middle part of the study region, depth to the center of the effective faults found. This depth variation is due to the effect of tectonic activity which produced a set of faults, such faults caused the upward and downward structural motions and were responsible for positioning the deep high density causative slabs of bedrock. The residual magnetic field quantitative interpretation along two profiles crosses over anomalies at the NE and SW parts of the region yielded the depth to the top of magnetized basement rocks. The difference in depth of the basement rocks and the shifted anomaly locations reflects the effect of tectonic activity which may relate to a strike slip faulting in the higher depths.</p> Wadhah Mahmood Shakir AL-Khafaji Ameen Ibraheem Al-Yasi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 29 38 10.46717/igj.54.2C.3Ms-2021-09-22 Study of Petrophysical Properties of the Yamama Formation in Siba Oilfield http://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/679 <p>Evaluating a reservoir to looking for hydrocarbon bearing zones, by determining the petrophysical properties in two wells of the Yamama Formation in Siba field using Schlumberger Techlog software. Three porosity logs were used to identify lithology using MN and MID cross plots. Shale volume were calculated using gamma ray log in well Sb-6ST1 and corrected gamma ray in well Sb-5B. Sonic log was used to calculate porosity in bad hole intervals while from density log at in-gauge intervals. Moreover, water saturation was computed from the modified Simandoux equation and compared to the Archie equation. Finally, Permeability was estimated using a flow zone indicator. The results show that the Yamama Formation is found to be mainly limestone that confirmed by cuttings description and this lithology intermixed with some dolomite, in addition to gas and secondary porosity effects. Generally, the formation is considered clean due to the low shale volume in both wells with the elimination of the uranium effect in well Sb-5B. The calculated porosity was validated by core porosity in YC and YD units. Modified Simandoux gives a better estimation than the Archie equation since it takes into account the conductive of matrix in addition to the fluid conductivity. Five equations were obtained from porosity permeability relationship of core data based on five hydraulic flow units reorganized from the cross plot of reservoir quality index against normalized porosity index. The overall interpretation showed that YC and YD units are the best quality hydrocarbon units in the Yamama Formation, while YA came in the second importance and has properties better than YB. Moreover, YE and YFG are poor units due to high water saturation.</p> Hussein Y. Ali Ghanim M. Farman Mohammed H. Hafiz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 39 47 10.46717/igj.54.2C.4Ms-2021-09-23 Foraminiferal Biostratigraphy of the Uppermost Cretaceous Period, Duhok Area, Kurdistan Region, North of Iraq http://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/688 <p>A relatively complete Late Maastrichtian succession of the upper part of the Shiranish Formation (Upper Cretaceous) in the Duhok area is investigated for the planktic foraminiferal assemblages. This studied interval consists mainly of bluish shale, marl, and thin beds of hard marly limestone all with grey-blue color. The upper contact of the Shiranish Formation is conformable with the overlies Danian Aaliji Formation. Based on the recorded planktic foraminifera and their ranges, the studied succession is subdivided into three main biozones of the latest Maastrichtian age, these zones are <em>Pseudoguembelina</em> <em>hariaensis</em> (CF3) Interval Zone, <em>Pseudoguembelina palpebra</em> (CF2) Interval Zone, and <em>Plummerita</em> <em>hantkeninoides</em> (CF1) Total Range Zone. These zones show continuous and complete Upper Cretaceous sediments, which are preserved in the Bade section of the Duhok area</p> Abdulrahman Bamerni Basim Al-Qayim Rund Ali Hammudi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 48 58 10.46717/igj.54.2C.5Ms-2021-09-24 Suitability of the Carbonate Rocks of the Bekhme Formation for Cement Industry, Hareer Mountain, North Iraq, Kurdistan Region http://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/696 <p>The main lithological composition of different formations in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region is the carbonate rocks; some of those rocks are suitable for cement production; such as Qamchuqa Bekhme, Sinjar, Pila Spi and Anah formations. However, the six existing cement plants in are using limestone beds, five of those plants are using limestone from the Sinjar Formation, and one plant is using limestone from the Anah Formation. Recently, performed research works confirmed that the limestone beds within the Qamchuqa, Bekhme and Pila Spi formations are very suitable for cement production. The current research work deals with studying the exposed limestone beds within the Bekhme Formation at Hareer Mountain in the central part of IKR to check their suitability for the cement industry. Accordingly, we collected 12 rock samples from a section within the Bekhme Formation at an almost constant sampling interval (5 m); however, for two samples the sampling interval was 6 and 8 m (sample No. 2 and 12, respectively). Each sample represents a channel sample for the concerned sampling interval to be representative for the thickness of the sampled interval. The total thickness of the sampled section is 64 m with a covered interval of 30 m, totaling up to 94 m. The collected 12 samples were prepared at the laboratory of the University of Kurdistan Hewler and were subjected to XRF test at Mass Cement Plant (Sulaimaniyah) to check the concentration of certain oxides that are used in the Iraqi Standard for cement production. The acquired concentrations of the main oxides (CaO, MgO, Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>, Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>, Na<sub>2</sub>O, K<sub>2</sub>O, SO<sub>3</sub>), and Cl and L.O.I. at each sample were changed to weighted averages and the results were compared with the Iraqi standards for cement industry. The result was the sampled rocks are excellent for cement production.&nbsp;</p> Varoujan K. Sissakian Ala A. Ghafur Fadhil I. Ibrahem Hawkar A. Abdulhaq Dalyia A. Hamoodi Hassan O. Omer ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 59 67 10.46717/igj.54.2C.6Ms-2021-09-25 Gravel Mining Activity Impact on Riverbed Erosion and Bridge Foundation Stability http://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/681 <p>Geomorphological processes pose a risk that deserves attention and planning to avoid that, especially in the section near to east of Tuz bridge. This section of the valley facing a dramatic increase in gravel excavation and sorting of aggregates, consequence led to a change in the pattern of river branches flow from an anabranching river to a single-channel river, which led to a concentration of river discharge during floods. On 9<sup>th</sup> December 2018, Tuz Bridge was failed due to a heavy rainstorm three days preceding the failure event. The current study aims to conduct a field survey of all the human activities in the study area to assess river changes from remote sensing data the amount of runoff and river peak discharge based on rainfall data using SCS-CN method. In this study, ArcGIS, ArcGIS Earth, Google Earth, and WMS software are incorporated in the data analysis. The revealed results indicate the severe modification of valley morphology and converting the river pattern to flow during flood within a single channel with flow speed exceeded the critical velocity to induce vertical erosion of gravel and sands under the foundations of the bridge and causing the displacement and settlement of the bridge. The study recommends the local administration prevent gravel mining from the river valley at the upstream area of the bridge</p> Ayad Ali Faris Beg Mohammed Bahjat Thamer Alyaa Gatea Shiltagh Ahmed H. Al-Sulttani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 68 79 10.46717/igj.54.2C.7Ms-2021-09-26 Potential Source of Heavy Metals in the Geophagic Clay (Marl) and Its Implication on Human Health in NE Iraq: A Pilot Study http://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/690 <p>Geophagy is the eating of non-food earthy matters practice (such as clay), which is performed especially in humans, to augment a scanty or mineral-deficient diet or as part of a cultural tradition. Geophagy, the intentional ingestion of clay or soil, is a prevalent practice among animals and humans, especially is more common in young ages, such as children and among pregnant women with a young age. In spite of some well documented cases, the motivations of this practice and its consequences on the status of health of the consumer are still unclear. This study focused on the source of heavy metals and its health impact because of the importance of the topic in the environmental hazards, especially as this addictive phenomenon may not be well known among families in our societies. During this study, twenty-four samples of marl were collected within the rock sequences of the Fatha Formation in the Kirkuk and Diyala, which are used in eating (mud eating disease) in these regions. The samples were subjected to laboratory studies including chemical analyses, to determine their contents of trace elements. The laboratory analytical data showed that these muds (marl) contain different concentrations of chemical elements such as (Co, Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn) which are among the heavy toxic elements and harmful to human health. A close look at the analytical data and results of the statistical and environmental factors, it is found that the marl (geophagia) consumption in terms of its content of trace elements, poses health risks to the consumer. However, it is worth mentioning to say that Geophagia practice may contribute large levels of the most beneficial elements such as Ca, Fe, K, Na, Cu, and Zn, supplying in demand mineral nutrients in the human body.</p> Abbas R. Ali Sarah I. Naser ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 80 87 10.46717/igj.54.2C.8Ms-2021-09-27 Estimating the Volume of Sediments and Assessing the Water Balance of the Badra Basin, Eastern Iraq, Using Swat Model and Remote Sensing Data http://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/692 <p>The primary objective of this study is to employ the remote sensing data and Soil &amp; Water Assessment Tool model to estimate sediment volume and assess the water balance of the Badra Basin (2,615km2) in eastern Iraq. Remote sensing data was utilized as the main input with the Soil &amp; Water Assessment Tool model. These data involved a land use-land cover map that was constructed by the classification of the Landsat-8 satellite imagery for the year 2020, STMR digital elevation model, soil map was acquired from the Food and Agriculture Organization and climatic data were sourced from the NASA-funded prediction of Worldwide Energy Resource The results discovered that about 40 % and 18% of the yearly rainfall are losing by evapotranspiration and filtration. The average amount of annual sediment transported was predicted at 120.47 tons /ha, 2018 recorded the highest value of transported sediment which is about 360 tons /ha. The volume of annual runoff was assessed at about 340.74 million m<sup>3</sup>. These results proved that the Soil &amp; Water Assessment tool model has the ability to estimation the sediment and runoff volume. The climatic elements, especially rainfall, in addition to soil classes, topography, and land use-land cover had a significant impact on the amount of transported sediments and the volume of runoff.</p> Awad A. Sahar Mustafa Ali Hassan Ammar Abd Jasim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 88 99 10.46717/igj.54.2C.9Ms-2021-09-28 Determining the Physical and Chemical Properties of the Soils in Babylon and Al-Qadisiyyah for Manufacturing Clay Bricks http://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/702 <p>The research included conducting a study of eight selected soil Stations in the Babylon and Al Qadisiyyah. The main target of the research is to study the physical, chemical, and compressive strength properties of these soils and their suitability for manufacturing ordinary clay bricks. It was found through the evaluation of the soils of the studied samples that their physical properties ranged as follows: the water content (13.52-31.88%) and the grain size analysis of the proportions of sand, silt, and clay as follows: (5-27%) (38-48%) (33-47%), respectively. The values of the Atterberg limits ranged as follows: the plastic limit ratios (13-21%), liquid limit (34-49%), plasticity index (13-28%), and the specific gravity ranged between (2.43-2.67). As for the chemical properties of the studied samples, they consist of a lot of silicates, carbonate calcium, and calcium oxide. Studied samples were characterized by water absorption 15-24%, and the efflorescence is varied from medium, low to nil. The soil samples are consequently considered as a suitable material for the manufacture of ordinary bricks in grades A and B based on Iraqi Standard specifications No. 25. &nbsp;</p> Muhsen O. Khalaf Bilal M. Issa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 100 116 10.46717/igj.54.2C.10Ms-2021-09-29 Sedimentological and Heavy Metals Characteristics of Streets Dust in some Areas East of Baghdad for 2020 http://igj-iraq.org/igj/index.php/igj/article/view/703 <p>Road-side dust samples were collected during August in 2020 from selected areas of, Al-Rusafa, Baghdad, Iraq. A sedimentological and mineralogical analysis of street dust was conducted. Three areas were selected to study street dusts which are Al-Baladitat, Al-Obaidi and Ziona. The laboratory analyses were done in the Department of Geology, College of Science, University of Baghdad. The heavy metal contents were determined in the roadside dust using XRF Method. It was found that the dust is of muddy texture, and is believed to be transmitted with the various storms blowing on Baghdad or by the wheels of Cars. The results of mineralogical investigation revealed that the dust samples composed of quartz, feldspar, calcite, gypsum and sedimentary rocks fragments, as light minerals and the heavy minerals were found as garnet, epidote, chlorites, pyroxene, biotite, zircon, muscovite, hornblende, tourmaline. The heavy metals (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb) in these streets dust samples were studied and used as indicator for pollution. two o main indices are applied: contamination factor, and pollution load index. The contamination factor for Co, Zn, Pb, and Ni is classified as class 2, which indicate moderately contamination, while the contamination factor for Fe and Cu is classified as class 1, which indicate low contamination. The pollution load index values in the all of studied sites are classified as class 2 (Deterioration on site quality) indicating local pollution, as well as denote perfection with class 0 of no pollution.</p> Huda Hadi Jassim Ibrahim Mahdi Salman Raad Mahmoud Nasif Al-Khafaji ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 117 125 10.46717/igj.54.2C.11Ms-2021-09-30