EVALUATION GROUNDWATER QUALITY BY USING GIS AND WATER QUALITY INDEX TECHNIQUES FOR WELLS IN BARDARASH AREA, NORTHERN IRAQ

  • Kaiwan Kareemkhan Fatah Department of Geology, College of Science, University of Salahaddin, Erbil, Iraq
  • Masoud Hamed Department of Geology, College of Science, University of Salahaddin, Erbil, Iraq
  • Mariwan Hamah Saeed Department of Geology, College of Science, University of Salahaddin, Erbil, Iraq
  • Rebwar Dara Department of Geology, College of Science, University of Salahaddin, Erbil, Iraq
Keywords: Groundwater, GIS, PH, TDS, Spatial analysis

Abstract

Studying groundwater quality in arid and semi-arid regions is essential significant because it is used as a foremost alternative source for various purposes (human and animal consumption, economic, agriculture and irrigation). Geographic Information System and Water Quality Index techniques were utilized for visualizing and evaluating the variations of groundwater quality in the studied area. Total twelve wells were sampled and twelve groundwater quality (chemical) parameters; pH, Total Alkalinity, Total Hardness (TH), Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Electrical Conductivity (Ec), Potassium (K), Nitrate (NO3), Sulfate (SO4), Chloride (Cl), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg) and Sodium (Na) were analyzed in the laboratory. Inverse Distance Weighted technique was used as a useful tool to create and anticipate spatial variation maps of the chemical parameters. Predicting or anticipating other areas not measured, identifying them and making use of them in the future without examining samples. The results of this research showed that 8.3% of the studied wells have excellent groundwater quality, and almost sampling wells about 75% found in good groundwater quality, while findings of groundwater quality of 16.7% studied wells belong to poor water quality due to standards of Water Quality Index. Moreover, spatial analysis in term of groundwater quality map showed that Excellent groundwater quality was detected in well 3, very good groundwater potential was noticed in six studied wells (wells 2, 6, 8, 10, 11 and 12), and other sampling wells (wells 4 and 7) were observed as good groundwater quality, while poor water quality was observed in wells (well 1 and 5). Hence, spatial distribution maps showed that the almost groundwater quality in the area about 1046.82 km² (99.04%) are suitable for drinking purpose, whereas proximate 10.18 km² (0.96%) are observed as poor water quality and inappropriate for consumptions especially in the southern part of the area.

Author Biographies

Masoud Hamed, Department of Geology, College of Science, University of Salahaddin, Erbil, Iraq

My name is  Masoud Hussein Hamed , I graduated from Geological Department, College of Science at Salahaddin University in 2002.  After graduation, I worked as a Demonstrator in the Geology Department from January/019/2003 to Oct/1/2005 in my Department. I worked as a laboratory demonstrator at the department of Geology. In October 2005, I accepted in Master’s Program at Salahaddin University in the specialty of Environmental. In Aprily 2007, I have gotten master’s degree in Environmental geology and became assistant lecturer for Environmental course in department of geology at Salahaddin University. In 2013, I got PhD in hydrogeology and groundwater modeling, at Salahaddin University.

Rebwar Dara, Department of Geology, College of Science, University of Salahaddin, Erbil, Iraq

My name is  Rebwar Nasir  Dara, I graduated from Geological Department, College of Science at Salahaddin University in 2005.  After graduation, I worked as a teaching assistant in the Geology Department from January/08/2006 to Oct/17/2008 in my university. I worked as a laboratory demonstrator at the department of Geology. In October 2008, I accepted in Masters Program at Salahaddin University in the specialty of Hydrogeology. In January 2011, I have gotten masters degree in geology and became assistant lecturer for Hydrogeology course in department of geology at Salahaddin university. In 2017, I  got PhD in hydrogeophysics, water science and biogeochemistry in the School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham-UK. My interdisciplinary research is on geophysical methods such as Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and investigates the multifaceted impacts of global environmental change on hydrological fluxes, biogeochemical cycling and contaminant transport in environment.

Published
2020-09-27