CLIMATIC ANALYSIS FOR PIRMAM AREA, KURDISTAN REGION, IRAQ
Techniques for water balance are methods of solving major theoretical and practical hydrological problems. The main objectives of this research are analyzing climatic parameters and the climatic conditions to be used in the water balance technique applied in Pirmam area, northern Iraq. The meteorological data of the Pirmam meteorological station during the period 1992–2017 were used to assess the climatic conditions of the study area. The average annual rainfall is 689.2 mm and the evaporation is 1665.9 mm, mean monthly relative humidity, temperature, wind speed, and sunshine were 52.25%, 21.36 oC, 2.26 m/sec, and 8.28 hr/day, respectively. Thornthwait method was used to determine potential evapotranspiration, water surplus and deficit, soil conservation method was used to determine surface runoff, and groundwater recharge based on water balance method. The results indicate that total potential evapotranspiration, water surplus and deficit are 1451.5 mm, 389.84 mm, and 1152.23 mm respectively, and annual runoff equal to 209.6 mm/year. The standardized precipitation index was calculated to characterize meteorological drought on a range of timescales, the average value of is -0.012. Groundwater recharge of the area equal to 209.6 mm/year and groundwater budget is 2.34*105 m3/year. Different methods were like Mather, Unep, and Al-Kubaisi, the results of these classifications show that climate is dry-sub humid according to the first classification, semi-arid according to the second classification, and humid to moist according to the third classification.